Journal of Nuclear Cardiology

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 188–199 | Cite as

Advanced cardiovascular imaging for the evaluation of cardiac sarcoidosis

  • Paco E. Bravo
  • Amitoj Singh
  • Marcelo F. Di Carli
  • Ron BlanksteinEmail author
Review Article


Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) remains an intriguing infiltrating disorder and one of the most important forms of inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Identification of patients with CS is of extreme importance because they are at higher risk of sudden death, and heart-failure progression. And while it remains a diagnostic conundrum, a great amount of experience has been accumulated over the last decade with the advent of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement imaging. They have both proven to be advanced imaging techniques that provide important, and often complementary, diagnostic and prognostic information for the management of CS. However, they have also shown to have limitations, and, thus, there is a continued need for developing more specific imaging probes for identifying cardiac inflammation. The aim of the present manuscript is to provide the reader with a better understanding of the histopathology of the disease, how this potentially relates to noninvasive imaging detection, and the best strategies available for the diagnosis and management of patients with CS.


Cardiovascular imaging F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose cardiac MRI inflammation sarcoidosis 



Cardiac sarcoidosis


Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging


Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose


Positron emission tomography


Late gadolinium enhancement



This work was supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (1T32HL094301, Dr. Bravo).


The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.

Supplementary material

12350_2018_1488_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (683 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 682 kb)


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Copyright information

© American Society of Nuclear Cardiology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paco E. Bravo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Amitoj Singh
    • 1
    • 3
  • Marcelo F. Di Carli
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ron Blankstein
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiovascular Division) and RadiologyBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of RadiologyBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  4. 4.Divisions of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiology, Departments of Radiology and MedicineHospital of the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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