Quantification of intramyocardial blood volume with 99mTc-RBC SPECT-CT imaging: A preclinical study
Currently, there is no established non-invasive imaging approach to directly evaluate myocardial microcirculatory function in order to diagnose microvascular disease independent of co-existing epicardial disease. In this work, we developed a methodological framework for quantification of intramyocardial blood volume (IMBV) as a novel index of microcirculatory function with SPECT/CT imaging of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells (RBCs).
Dual-gated myocardial SPECT/CT equilibrium imaging of 99mTc-RBCs was performed on twelve canines under resting conditions. Five correction schemes were studied: cardiac gating with no other corrections (CG), CG with attenuation correction (CG + AC), CG + AC with scatter correction (CG + AC + SC), dual cardiorespiratory gating with AC + SC (DG + AC + SC), and DG + AC + SC with partial volume correction (DG + AC + SC + PVC). Quantification of IMBV using each approach was evaluated in comparison to those obtained from all corrections. The in vivo SPECT estimates of IMBV values were validated against those obtained from ex vivo microCT imaging of the casted hearts.
The estimated IMBV with all corrections was 0.15 ± 0.03 for the end-diastolic phase and 0.11 ± 0.03 for the end-systolic phase. The cycle-dependent change in IMBV (ΔIMBV) with all corrections was 23.9 ± 8.6%. Schemes that applied no correction or partial correction resulted in significant over-estimation of IMBV and significant under-underestimation of ΔIMBV. Estimates of IMBV and ΔIMBV using all corrections were consistent with values reported in the literature using invasive techniques. In vivo SPECT estimates of IMBV strongly correlated (R2 ≥ 0.70) with ex vivo measures for the various correction schemes, while the fully corrected scheme yielded the smallest bias.
Non-invasive quantification of IMBV is feasible using 99mTc-RBCs SPECT/CT imaging, however, requires full compensation of physical degradation factors.
KeywordsIntramyocardial blood volume partial volume correction SPECT-CT imaging microCT coronary microcirculation cardio-respiratory motion correction
Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography
Non-contrast CT for attenuation correction
Coronary microvascular disease
Coronary artery disease
- LV, RV
Left ventricle, right ventricle
Intramyocardial blood volume
Cycle-dependent change in IMBV
- CLV-blp, Cmyo
99mTc-RBC uptake in the LV blood pool or myocardium
The authors wish to thank Dr. Eva Romito, Dr. Attila Feher, Dr. Jing Wu, Sharon Wang, Tsa Shelton, and Christi Hawley for their help in conducting the experiments.
Hassan Mohy-ud-Din, Nabil E. Boutagy, John C. Stendahl, Zhen W. Zhuang, Albert J. Sinusas, and Chi Liu claim no potential conflict of interests.
All experiments were performed in accordance with Yale University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee standards and approval.
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