Journal of Nuclear Cardiology

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 195–206 | Cite as

18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography in infective endocarditis

  • Soile Pauliina Salomäki
  • Antti Saraste
  • Jukka Kemppainen
  • Jeroen J. Bax
  • Juhani Knuuti
  • Pirjo Nuutila
  • Marko Seppänen
  • Anne Roivainen
  • Juhani Airaksinen
  • Laura Pirilä
  • Jarmo Oksi
  • Ulla HohenthalEmail author
Original Article



The diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE), especially the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is challenging since echocardiographic findings are often scarce in the early phase of the disease. We studied the use of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in IE.


Sixteen patients with suspected PVE and 7 patients with NVE underwent visual evaluation of 18F-FDG-PET/CT. 18F-FDG uptake was measured also semiquantitatively as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and target-to-background ratio (TBR). The modified Duke criteria were used as a reference.


There was strong, focal 18F-FDG uptake in the area of the affected valve in all 6 cases of definite PVE, in 3 of 5 possible PVE cases, and in 2 of 5 rejected cases. In all patients with definite PVE, SUVmax of the affected valve was higher than 4 and TBR higher than 1.8. In contrast to PVE, only 1 of 7 patients with NVE had uptake of 18F-FDG by PET/CT in the valve area. Embolic infectious foci were detected in 58% of the patients with definite IE.


18F-FDG-PET/CT appears to be a sensitive method for the detection of paravalvular infection associated with PVE. Instead, the sensitivity of PET/CT is limited in NVE.


Infective endocarditis prosthetic valve endocarditis echocardiography positron emission tomography 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose 



Infective endocarditis


Prosthetic valve endocarditis


Native valve endocarditis


Positron emission tomography/computed tomography




Maximum standardized uptake value


Target-to-background ratio


Transesophageal echocardiography


Transthoracic echocardiography



The study was conducted in the Finnish Centre of Excellence in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases supported by the Academy of Finland, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, and Åbo Akademi University. The study was supported by the State Research Funds of the Turku University Hospital, and Orion-Farmos Research Foundation.


The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.


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Copyright information

© American Society of Nuclear Cardiology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soile Pauliina Salomäki
    • 1
  • Antti Saraste
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Jukka Kemppainen
    • 2
    • 4
  • Jeroen J. Bax
    • 6
  • Juhani Knuuti
    • 2
  • Pirjo Nuutila
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Marko Seppänen
    • 2
    • 4
  • Anne Roivainen
    • 2
  • Juhani Airaksinen
    • 3
    • 5
  • Laura Pirilä
    • 1
  • Jarmo Oksi
    • 1
    • 5
  • Ulla Hohenthal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of MedicineUniversity of Turku and Turku University HospitalTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Turku PET CentreUniversity of Turku and Turku University HospitalTurkuFinland
  3. 3.Heart CenterUniversity of Turku and Turku University HospitalTurkuFinland
  4. 4.Department of Physiology and Nuclear MedicineUniversity of Turku and Turku University HospitalTurkuFinland
  5. 5.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical MedicineUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  6. 6.Department of CardiologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands

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