Journal of Nuclear Cardiology

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 723–729 | Cite as

Limitations of parametric modeling of the left ventricle using first harmonic analysis: Possible role for gaussian modeling

Original Article



Fourier (cosine) analysis of time activity curves (TAC) of radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) may oversimplify the TAC and has limitations.


We identified 21 patients who had undergone 24 frame planar RVG with ejection fractions ranging from 8% to 76% (43% ± 19%). The TAC for each pixel was fitted to both a cosine and gaussian function then analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis then over the entire LV. Second, mathematical simulations were performed to analyze the stability of each fit in the presence of low amplitude and noise.


The fit was slightly but significantly better for the gaussian compared to the cosine function (RMS gaussian 13.0% ± 2.5% vs 13.5% ± 2.1% cosine; P = .016). There was near exact correlation with amplitude and between gaussian mu and cosine phase. The SD of phase from the cosine fit correlated strongly with the SD of the mu from the gaussian fit. The proposed new measure of dyssynchrony, the sigma parameter of the gaussian fit, correlated with the SD of the cosine phase (r = 0.520, P = .016). Simulations showed gradual but modest deviation of the sigma parameter from the gaussian fit with lower amplitudes whereas the deviation of the calculated SD of phase increased exponentially with decreasing amplitude.


First harmonic (cosine) fitting has significant limitations. Gaussian fitting is an alternative way to model the LV TAC. The sigma from the gaussian may provide additional information LV dyssynchrony and is less influenced by image noise. Gaussian fitting merits further evaluation for modeling LV function.


Image processing gated blood pool imaging cardiomyopathy 



The author has nothing to disclose.


  1. 1.
    Botvinick E, Dunn R, Frais M, O’Connell W, Shosa D, Herfkens R, et al. The phase image: Its relationship to patterns of contraction and conduction. Circulation 1982;65:551-60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Botvinick EH, Frais MA, Shosa DW, O’Connell JW, Pacheco-Alvarez JA, Scheinman M, et al. An accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis. Am J Cardiol 1982;50:289-98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schechtmann N, Botvinick EH, Dae M, Scheinman MM, O’Connell JW, Davis J, et al. The scintigraphic characteristics of ventricular pre-excitation through Mahaim fibers with the use of phase analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;13:882-91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Trimble MA, Borges-Neto S, Smallheiser S, Chen J, Honeycutt EF, Shaw LK, et al. Evaluation of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony as determined by phase analysis of ECG-gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and conduction disturbances. J Nucl Cardiol 2007;14:298-307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fauchier L, Marie O, Casset-Senon D, Babuty D, Cosnay P, Fauchier JP. Interventricular and intraventricular dyssynchrony in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: A prognostic study with fourier phase analysis of radionuclide angioscintigraphy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:2022-30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kerwin WF, Botvinick EH, O’Connell JW, Merrick SH, DeMarco T, Chatterjee K, et al. Ventricular contraction abnormalities in dilated cardiomyopathy: Effect of biventricular pacing to correct interventricular dyssynchrony. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:1221-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ruschitzka F, Abraham WT, Singh JP, Bax JJ, Borer JS, Brugada J, et al. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy in heart failure with a narrow QRS complex. N Engl J Med 2013;369:1395-405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chung ES, Leon AR, Tavazzi L, Sun JP, Nihoyannopoulos P, Merlino J, et al. Results of the predictors of response to CRT (PROSPECT) trial. Circulation 2008;117:2608-16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O’Connell JW, Schreck C, Moles M, Badwar N, DeMarco T, Olgin J, et al. A unique method by which to quantitate synchrony with equilibrium radionuclide angiography. J Nucl Cardiol 2005;12:441-50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen J, Garcia EV, Bax JJ, Iskandrian AE, Borges-Neto S, Soman P. SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging for the assessment of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony. J Nucl Cardiol 2011;18:685-94.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wallace AG, Mitchell JH, Skinner NS, Sarnoff SJ. Duration of the phases of left ventricular systole. Circ Res 1963;12:611-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bombardini T, Sicari R, Bianchini E, Picano E. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure. Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2011;9:36.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weissler AM, Harris WS, Schoenfeld CD. Systolic time intervals in heart failure in man. Circulation 1968;37:149-59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Dancey C, Reidy J. Statistics without maths for psychology. 5th ed. New York: Prentice Hall; 2011.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen J, Kalogeropoulos AP, Verdes L, Butler J, Garcia EV. Left-ventricular systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony as assessed by multi-harmonic phase analysis of gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with end-stage renal disease and normal LVEF. J Nucl Cardiol 2011;18:299-308.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Society of Nuclear Cardiology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Cardiology, Jefferson Heart InstituteThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations