Radiation exposure in diagnostic imaging—use, misuse, or abuse? Part I: The background and science of medical radiation
- 223 Downloads
Perspective on Medical Radiation for Medical Imaging
Diagnostic use of radiation has progressed from Wilhelm Roentgen’s image of his wife’s hand in 18951 to 4-dimensional images of cardiac anatomy, function, perfusion, and metabolism. Imaging is widely used in the twenty-first century, with growth stimulated by the clinical insights gained for patient care.
Cardiac imaging with nuclear medicine techniques and x-ray computed tomography (CT) results in the largest exposure of ionizing radiation to the US population. In fact there was a 700% increase in radiation exposure to patients from 1986 until 2006. Radiation exposure is increasing at rate of 5% per year with 25% collective dose.2,3 This includes CT growth at about 10% per year. Cardiac CT has accounted for 1.5% of radiation exposure, and is increasing gradually.
Among nuclear medicine studies, cardiac imaging represents 57% of the number of studies and 85% of the radiation dose. The frequency of these procedures increased by 10% or...
KeywordsRadiation Exposure Nuclear Cardiology Coronary Compute Tomography Angiography Cardiac Compute Tomography SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging
- 1.Glasser O. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen and the early years of Roentgen rays. San Francisco, CA: Norman Publishing; 1993.Google Scholar
- 2.Gerber TC, Carr JJ, Arai AE, et al. Ionizing radiation in cardiac imaging: A science advisory from the American Heart Association Committee on Cardiac Imaging of the Council on Clinical Cardiology and Committee on Cardiovascular Imaging and Intervention of the Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention. Circulation 2009;119:1056-65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Brindis RG, Douglas PS, Hendel RC, et al. ACCF/ASNC appropriateness criteria for single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI): A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Quality Strategic Directions Committee Appropriateness Criteria Working Group and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology endorsed by the American Heart Association. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:1587-605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Hendel RC, Berman DS, Di Carli MF, et al. ACCF/ASNC/ACR/AHA/ASE/SCCT/SCMR/SNM 2009 appropriate use criteria for cardiac radionuclide imaging: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:2201-29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.http://www.diagnosticimaging.com/display/article/113619/1475485. Accessed 4/10/2011.