Journal of Nuclear Cardiology

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 153–162

Measurement of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque detection for cardiovascular risk assessment

Advances in Nonnuclear Imaging Technologies

References

  1. 1.
    American Heart Association, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics (2010) Update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Castelli WP. Lipids, risk factors and ischaemic heart disease. Atherosclerosis 1996;124:S1-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grundy SM, Pasternak R, Greenland P, Smith SJ, Fuster V. Assessment of cardiovascular risk by use of multiple-risk-factor assessment equations:a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. Circulation 1999;100:1481-92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Greenland P, Knoll MD, Stamler J, Neaton JD, Dyer AR, Garside DB, et al. Major risk factors as antecedents of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease events. JAMA 2003;290:891-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liao Y, McGee DL, Cooper RS, Sutkowski MB. How generalizable are coronary risk prediction models? Comparison of Framingham and two national cohorts. Am Heart J 1999;137:837-45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berger JS, Jordan CO, Lloyd-Jones D, Blumenthal RS. Screening for cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:1169-77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D’Agostino RB Sr, Grundy S, Sullivan LM, Wilson P. Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores:results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation. JAMA 2001;286:180-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lloyd-Jones DM, Leip EP, Larson MG, D’Agostino RB, Beiser A, Wilson PW, et al. Prediction of lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease by risk factor burden at 50 years of age. Circulation 2006;113:791-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilson PW, Smith SC Jr, Blumenthal RS, Burke GL, Wong ND. 34th Bethesda Conference: Task force #4—How do we select patients for atherosclerosis imaging? J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1898-906.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berry JD, Liu K, Folsom AR, Lewis CE, Carr JJ, Polak JF, et al. Prevalence and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in younger adults with low short-term but high lifetime estimated risk for cardiovascular disease:the coronary artery risk development in young adults study and multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Circulation 2009;119:382-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Greenland P, Abrams J, Aurigemma GP, Bond MG, Clark LT, Criqui MH, et al. Prevention Conference V: Beyond secondary prevention:identifying the high-risk patient for primary prevention: noninvasive tests of atherosclerotic burden: Writing Group III. Circulation 2000;101:E16-22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002;106:3143-421Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Taylor AJ, Merz CN, Udelson JE. 34th Bethesda Conference: Executive summary—can atherosclerosis imaging techniques improve the detection of patients at risk for ischemic heart disease? J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1860-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chambers BR, Norris JW. Outcome in patients with asymptomatic neck bruits. N Engl J Med 1986;315:860-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chimowitz MI, Weiss DG, Cohen SL, Starling MR, Hobson RW. Cardiac prognosis of patients with carotid stenosis and no history of coronary artery disease. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 167. Stroke 1994;25:759-65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stein JH, Korcarz CE, Hurst RT, Lonn E, Kendall CB, Mohler ER, et al. Use of carotid ultrasound to identify subclinical vascular disease and evaluate cardiovascular disease risk: A consensus statement from the American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force. Endorsed by the Society for Vascular Medicine. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008;21:93-111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chambless LE, Heiss G, Shahar E, Earp MJ, Toole J. Prediction of ischemic stroke risk in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Epidemiol 2004;160:259-69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Young W, Gofman J, Tandy R, Malamud N, Waters E. The quantitation of atherosclerosis III. The extent of correlation of degrees of atherosclerosis with and between the coronary and cerebral vascular beds. Am J Cardiol 1960;8:300-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bots ML, Baldassarre D, Simon A, de Groot E, O’Leary DH, Riley W, et al. Carotid intima-media thickness and coronary atherosclerosis: Weak or strong relations? Eur Heart J 2007;28:398-406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wikstrand J. Methodological considerations of ultrasound measurement of carotid artery intima-media thickness and lumen diameter. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2007;27:341-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wendelhag I, Gustavsson T, Suurkula M, Berglund G, Wikstrand J. Ultrasound measurement of wall thickness in the carotid artery: Fundamental principles and description of a computerized analysing system. Clin Physiol 1991;11:565-77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Najjar SS, Scuteri A, Lakatta EG. Arterial aging: Is it an immutable cardiovascular risk factor? Hypertension 2005;46:454-62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Finn AV, Kolodgie FD, Virmani R. Correlation between carotid intimal/medial thickness and atherosclerosis: A point of view from pathology. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010;30:177-81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Howard G, Sharrett AR, Heiss G, Evans GW, Chambless LE, Riley WA, et al. Carotid artery intimal-medial thickness distribution in general populations as evaluated by B-mode ultrasound. ARIC Investigators. Stroke 1993;24:1297-304.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnson HM, Douglas PS, Srinivasan SR, Bond MG, Tang R, Li S, et al. Predictors of carotid intima-media thickness progression in young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Stroke 2007;38:900-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ebrahim S, Papacosta O, Whincup P, Wannamethee G, Walker M, Nicolaides AN, et al. Carotid plaque, intima media thickness, cardiovascular risk factors, and prevalent cardiovascular disease in men and women: The British Regional Heart Study. Stroke 1999;30:841-50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schott LL, Wildman RP, Brockwell S, Simkin-Silverman LR, Kuller LH, Sutton-Tyrrell K. Segment-specific effects of cardiovascular risk factors on carotid artery intima-medial thickness in women at midlife. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004;24:1951-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Savage PJ, Borhani NO, Kittner SJ, et al. Thickening of the carotid wall. A marker for atherosclerosis in the elderly? Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. Stroke 1996;27:224-31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Espeland MA, Tang R, Terry JG, Davis DH, Mercuri M, Crouse JR III. Associations of risk factors with segment-specific intimal-medial thickness of the extracranial carotid artery. Stroke 1999;30:1047-55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chambless LE, Heiss G, Folsom AR, Rosamond W, Szklo M, Sharrett AR, et al. Association of coronary heart disease incidence with carotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987-1993. Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:483-94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Manolio TA, Burke GL, Wolfson SK Jr. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 1999;340:14-22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Iglesias dS, Bots ML, Grobbee DE, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Carotid intima-media thickness at different sites: Relation to incident myocardial infarction; The Rotterdam Study. Eur Heart J 2002;23:934-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Folsom AR, Kronmal RA, Detrano RC, O’Leary DH, Bild DE, Bluemke DA, et al. Coronary artery calcification compared with carotid intima-media thickness in the prediction of cardiovascular disease incidence: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1333-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lorenz MW, Markus HS, Bots ML, Rosvall M, Sitzer M. Prediction of clinical cardiovascular events with carotid intima-media thickness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 2007;115:459-67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nambi V, Chambless L, Folsom AR, He M, Hu Y, Mosley T, et al. Carotid intima-media thickness and presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart disease risk: The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:1600-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stork S, van den Beld AW, von Schacky C, Angermann CE, Lamberts SW, Grobbee DE, et al. Carotid artery plaque burden, stiffness, and mortality risk in elderly men: A prospective, population-based cohort study. Circulation 2004;110:344-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Roman MJ, Naqvi TZ, Gardin JM, Gerhard-Herman M, Jaff M, Mohler E. Clinical application of noninvasive vascular ultrasound in cardiovascular risk stratification: A report from the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Vascular Medicine and Biology. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2006;19:943-54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, Boysen G, Burell G, Cifkova R, et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: Executive summary. Eur Heart J 2007;28:2375-414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Prati P, Tosetto A, Vanuzzo D, Bader G, Casaroli M, Canciani L, et al. Carotid intima media thickness and plaques can predict the occurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular events. Stroke 2008;39:2470-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Johnsen SH, Mathiesen EB, Joakimsen O, Stensland E, Wilsgaard T, Lochen ML, et al. Carotid atherosclerosis is a stronger predictor of myocardial infarction in women than in men: A 6-year follow-up study of 6226 persons: The Tromso Study. Stroke 2007;38:2873-80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chambless LE, Folsom AR, Clegg LX, Sharrett AR, Shahar E, Nieto FJ, et al. Carotid wall thickness is predictive of incident clinical stroke: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:478-87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lorenz MW, von Kegler S, Steinmetz H, Markus HS, Sitzer M. Carotid intima-media thickening indicates a higher vascular risk across a wide age range: Prospective data from the Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study (CAPS). Stroke 2006;37:87-92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Salonen JT, Salonen R. Ultrasound B-mode imaging in observational studies of atherosclerotic progression. Circulation 1993;87:II56-65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kitamura A, Iso H, Imano H, Ohira T, Okada T, Sato S, et al. Carotid intima-media thickness and plaque characteristics as a risk factor for stroke in Japanese elderly men. Stroke 2004;35:2788-94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rosvall M, Janzon L, Berglund G, Engstrom G, Hedblad B. Incident coronary events and case fatality in relation to common carotid intima-media thickness. J Intern Med 2005;257:430-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    van der Meer I, Bots ML, Hofman A, del Sol AI, van der Kuip DA, Witteman JC. Predictive value of noninvasive measures of atherosclerosis for incident myocardial infarction: The Rotterdam Study. Circulation 2004;109:1089-94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Simon A, Megnien JL, Chironi G. The value of carotid intima-media thickness for predicting cardiovascular risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010;30:182-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hunt KJ, Sharrett AR, Chambless LE, Folsom AR, Evans GW, Heiss G. Acoustic shadowing on B-mode ultrasound of the carotid artery predicts CHD. Ultrasound Med Biol 2001;27:357-65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Salonen JT, Salonen R. Ultrasonographically assessed carotid morphology and the risk of coronary heart disease. Arterioscler Thromb 1991;11:1245-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Prabhakaran S, Rundek T, Ramas R, Elkind MS, Paik MC, Boden-Albala B, et al. Carotid plaque surface irregularity predicts ischemic stroke: The northern Manhattan study. Stroke 2006;37:2696-701.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wyman RA, Mays ME, McBride PE, Stein JH. Ultrasound-detected carotid plaque as a predictor of cardiovascular events. Vasc Med 2006;11:123-30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wattanakit K, Folsom AR, Chambless LE, Nieto FJ. Risk factors for cardiovascular event recurrence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am Heart J 2005;149:606-12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cook NR. Use and misuse of the receiver operating characteristic curve in risk prediction. Circulation 2007;115:928-35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cook NR, Ridker PM. Advances in measuring the effect of individual predictors of cardiovascular risk: The role of reclassification measures. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:795-802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Polonsky TS, McClelland RL, Jorgensen NW, Bild DE, Burke GL, Guerci AD, et al. Coronary artery calcium score and risk classification for coronary heart disease prediction. JAMA 2010;303:1610-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Touboul PJ, Hennerici MG, Meairs S, Adams H, Amarenco P, Desvarieux M, et al. Mannheim intima-media thickness consensus. Cerebrovasc Dis 2004;18:346-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Touboul PJ, Hennerici MG, Meairs S, Adams H, Amarenco P, Bornstein N, et al. Mannheim carotid intima-media thickness consensus (2004-2006). An update on behalf of the advisory board of the 3rd and 4th watching the risk symposium 13th and 15th European stroke conferences, Mannheim, Germany, 2004, and Brussels, Belgium, 2006. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007;23:75-80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    McClelland RL, Chung H, Detrano R, Post W, Kronmal RA. Distribution of coronary artery calcium by race, gender, and age: Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circulation 2006;113:30-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Coles DR, Smail MA, Negus IS, Wilde P, Oberhoff M, Karsch KR, et al. Comparison of radiation doses from multislice computed tomography coronary angiography and conventional diagnostic angiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:1840-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bard RL, Kalsi H, Rubenfire M, Wakefield T, Fex B, Rajagopalan S, et al. Effect of carotid atherosclerosis screening on risk stratification during primary cardiovascular disease prevention. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:1030-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rembold KE, Ayers CR, Wills MB, Rembold CM. Usefulness of carotid intimal medial thickness and flow-mediated dilation in a preventive cardiovascular practice. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:1475-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Stein JH, Fraizer MC, Aeschlimann SE, Nelson-Worel J, McBride PE, Douglas PS. Individualizing coronary risk assessment using carotid intima media thickness measurements to estimate vascular age. Clin Cardiol 2004;27:388-92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gepner AD, Keevil JG, Wyman RA, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, Busse KL, et al. Use of carotid intima-media thickness and vascular age to modify cardiovascular risk prediction. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2006;19:1170-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gepner AD, Wyman RA, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, Stein JH. An abbreviated carotid intima-media thickness scanning protocol to facilitate clinical screening for subclinical atherosclerosis. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2007;20:1269-75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stein JH, Korcarz CE, Mays ME, Douglas PS, Palta M, Zhang H, et al. A semiautomated ultrasound border detection program that facilitates clinical measurement of ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005;18:244-51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tzou WS, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, Morgan BJ, Skatrud JB, Stein JH. Coronary flow velocity changes in response to hypercapnia: Assessment by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2007;20:421-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Korcarz CE, De Cara JM, Hirsch AT, Mohler ER, Pogue B, Postley J, et al. Ultrasound detection of increased carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque in an office practice setting: Does it affect physician behavior or patient motivation? J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008;21:1156-62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gepner AD, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, LeCaire TJ, Palta M, Tzou WS, et al. Validation of a carotid intima-media thickness border detection program for use in an office setting. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2006;19:223-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Korcarz CE, Hirsch AT, Bruce C, DeCara JM, Mohler ER, Pogue B, et al. Carotid intima-media thickness testing by non-sonographer clinicians: The office practice assessment of carotid atherosclerosis study. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008;21:117-22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Johnson H, Turke T, Grossklaus M, Dall T, Carimi S, Koenig L, et al. Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis by office-based carotid ultrasound increases prescription of preventive therapies. 59th annual scientific sessions of the American College of Cardiology, Atlanta, GA (abstract). J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;55:A58 (full manuscript under review)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lawson PJ, Flocke SA. Teachable moments for health behavior change: A concept analysis. Patient Educ Couns 2009;76:25-30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Taylor AJ, Bindeman J, Feuerstein I, Le T, Bauer K, Byrd C, et al. Community-based provision of statin and aspirin after the detection of coronary artery calcium within a community-based screening cohort. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:1337-41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Orakzai RH, Nasir K, Orakzai SH, Kalia N, Gopal A, Musunuru K, et al. Effect of patient visualization of coronary calcium by electron beam computed tomography on changes in beneficial lifestyle behaviors. Am J Cardiol 2008;101:999-1002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kalia NK, Miller LG, Nasir K, Blumenthal RS, Agrawal N, Budoff MJ. Visualizing coronary calcium is associated with improvements in adherence to statin therapy. Atherosclerosis. 2006;185:394-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Adair JG. The Hawthorne effect: A reconsideration of the methodological artifact. J Appl Psychol. 1984;78:413-32.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    O’Malley PG, Feuerstein IM, Taylor AJ. Impact of electron beam tomography, with or without case management, on motivation, behavioral change, and cardiovascular risk profile: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;289:2215-23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lederman J, Ballard J, Njike VY, Margolies L, Katz DL. Information given to postmenopausal women on coronary computed tomography may influence cardiac risk reduction efforts. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60:389-96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Johnson HM, Turke TL, Grossklaus M, Dall T, Carimi S, Koenig LM, et al. (2010) Effects of office-based carotid ultrasound on health-related behaviors and perceptions of cardiovascular disease risk in patients. 59th Annual Scientific Sessions of the American College of Cardiology, Atlanta, GA (abstract). J Am Coll Cardiol 55(Supplement A): A59Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Johnson HM, Einerson J, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, Stein JH. Long-term effects of carotid screening on patient outcomes and behaviors. Arch Intern Med 2010 (in press)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bovet P, Perret F, Cornuz J, Quilindo J, Paccaud F. Improved smoking cessation in smokers given ultrasound photographs of their own atherosclerotic plaques. Prev Med 2002;34:215-20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Barth JD. Which tools are in your cardiac workshop? Carotid ultrasound, endothelial function, and magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Cardiol 2001;87:8A-14A.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hollands G, Hankins M, Marteau T (2010) Visual feedback of individuals’ medical imaging results for changing health behavior (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD007434Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Crouse JR III, Raichlen JS, Riley WA, Evans GW, Palmer MK, O’Leary DH, et al. Effect of rosuvastatin on progression of carotid intima-media thickness in low-risk individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis: The METEOR Trial. JAMA 2007;297:1344-53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Espeland MA, O’Leary DH, Terry JG, Morgan T, Evans G, Mudra H. Carotid intimal-media thickness as a surrogate for cardiovascular disease events in trials of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med 2005;6:3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Society of Nuclear Cardiology 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations