Sagittal abdominal diameter: comparison with waist circumference and its prediction of metabolic syndrome
- First Online:
For an “in the field” estimate of visceral adiposity, simple, inexpensive, non-invasive and highly repetitive methods are needed. The anthropometric measurement most commonly used as an indicator for visceral fat deposits is waist circumference (W). Nevertheless, there are some doubts with regard to the anatomic landmark points where the evaluation needs to be carried out. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is another anthropometric measurement that has been proposed for the estimation of visceral fat.
The aims of the study are to evaluate intra- and inter-operator variability of the estimation of the SAD compared to W; correlate SAD to other anthropometric parameters and to factors involved in the metabolic syndrome (MS); and identify the values for the estimation of the SAD able to classify different risk levels with respect to the MS.
Ninety-five subjects at the Metabolic and Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit “Villa delle Querce” in Nemi were selected. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were collected. The presence of a MS was detected. Intra- and inter-operator variability in the measurement of W and SAD and the predictive capacity of SAD in the estimation of the risk for MS were calculated.
The main results achieved were reduced intra- and inter-operator variability in the measurement of SAD compared to W; confirmation of the correlations between SAD and the anthropometric parameters as indicators of a higher fat mass; and good predictive capacity of SAD towards MS (cut-off points: 22.2 cm for men and 19.5 cm for women).
KeywordsNutritional status Metabolic syndrome Sagittal abdominal caliper Waist circumference
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.World Health Organization (2000) The Asia-Pacific Perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment. Introduction. WHO, Sydney, p 8Google Scholar
- 2.Friedman JM (2000) Obesity in the new millennium. Nature 404:632–634Google Scholar
- 3.Feinleib M (1985) Epidemiology of obesity in relation to health hazards. Ann Intern Med 103:1019–1024Google Scholar
- 8.Chowdhury B, Sjostrom L, Alpsten M et al (1994) A multicom-partment body composition technique based on computerized tomography. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 18:219–234Google Scholar
- 9.Sjostrom L (1996) A multicompartment body composition technique based on computerized tomography. Progr Obes Res 7:321–324Google Scholar
- 10.Despres JP, Ross R, Lemieux S (1996) Imaging techniques applied to the measurement of human body composition. In: Roche AF, Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG (eds) Human body composition. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, pp 149–166Google Scholar
- 11.Kvist H, Badrul C, Grangard U et al (1988) Total and visceral adipose-tissue volumes derived from measurements with computed tomography in adult men and woman: predictive equations. Am J Clin Nutr 48:1351–1361Google Scholar
- 12.Rasmussen MH, Andersen T, Breum L et al (1993) Observer variation in measurements of waist-hip ratio and the sagittal abdominal diameter. Int J Obes 17:323–327Google Scholar
- 14.World Health Organization Expert Committee (1995) Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Technical Report Series no. 854, WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 15.Wang Y, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ et al (2005) Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in predicting risk of type 2 diabetes among men. Am J Clin Nutr 81:555–563Google Scholar
- 18.Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R (2004) Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-ralated health risk. Am J Clin Nutr 79:379–384Google Scholar
- 19.Klein S, Allison DB, Heymsfield SB et al (2007) Waist circumference and cardiometabolic risk: a consensus statement from Shaping America’s Health: Association for Weight Management and Obesity Prevention; NAASO, The Obesity Society, the American Society for Nutrition, and The American Diabetes Association. Am J Clin Nutr 85:1197–1202Google Scholar
- 20.Wang J, Thornton JC, Williamson B et al (2003) Comparison of waist circumference measured at 4 sites. Am J Clin Nutr 77:379–384Google Scholar
- 21.Han TS, van Leer EM, Seidell JC et al (1995) Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. BMJ 311:1401–1405Google Scholar
- 24.Despres JP, Pouliot MC, Bouchard C et al (1991) Estimation of deep abdominal adipose-tissue accumulation from simple anthropometric measurements in men. Am J Clin Nutr 54:471–477Google Scholar
- 25.Van der Kooy K, Seidell JC (1993) Techniques for the measurement of visceral fat: a practical guide. Int J Obes Relat Disord 17:187–196Google Scholar
- 28.Sjostrom L, Lonn L, Chowdhury B et al (1996) The sagittal diameter is a valid marker of the visceral adipose tissue volume. Progr Obes Res 7:309–319Google Scholar
- 29.Han JH, Park HS, Kim SM et al (2007) Visceral adipose tissue as a predictor for metabolic risk factors in the Korean population. Diabet Med 25:106–110Google Scholar
- 32.Gustat J, Elkasabany A, Srinivasan S et al (2000) Relation of abdominal height to cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol 151:885–891Google Scholar
- 37.Mukuddem-Petersen J, Snijder MB, van Dam RM et al (2006) Sagittal abdominal diameter: no advantage compared with other anthropometric measures as a correlate of components of the metabolic syndrome in elderly from the Hoorn Study. Am J Clin Nutr 84:995–1002Google Scholar
- 38.Lohman T, Roche AF, Martorell R (1992) Manuale di riferimento per la standardizzazione antropometrica. EDRAGoogle Scholar
- 40.Siri WE (1963) Body composition, from fluid spaces and density. Analysis of methods. In: Techniques for measuring body composition. National Academy of Sciences — National Research Council, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 42.Turner RC, Levy JC, Rudesnki AS et al (1993) Measurement of insulin resistance and beta-cell function: the HOMA and CIGMA approach. In: Belfiore F, Bergman R, Molinatti G (eds) Current topics in diabetes research. Front Diabetes, Vol.12. Karger, Basel, pp 66–75Google Scholar
- 44.Sampaio LR, Simões EJ, Assis AM, Ramos LR (2007) Validity and reliability of the sagittal abdominal diameter as a predictor of visceral abdominal fat. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab 51:980–986Google Scholar
- 45.Lemieux S, Prud’homme D, Bouchard C et al (1996) A single threshold value of waist girth identifies normal-weight and overweight subjects with excess visceral adipose tissue. Am J Clin Nutr 64:685–693Google Scholar