Colonoscopy surveillance after polypectomy
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The goal of surveillance examinations after polypectomy is to detect new adenomas and missed synchronous adenomas, as well as preventing adenomas from becoming invasive or cancerous. The first colonoscopy surveillance program reported was the National Polyp Study from the United States in 1997, with an update in 2003. First screening colonoscopy and polypectomy have been shown to produce the greatest effects in reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer in patients with adenomatous polyps. However, a large number of adenomas are being discovered as a result of the increased use of colorectal cancer screening, particularly with the dramatic increase in screening colonoscopy and surveillance. Increased efficiency of surveillance colonoscopy practices is therefore needed to decrease the cost, risk, and overuse of medical resources. In developing surveillance programs, studying miss rates and incidences and performing separate evaluations are important, along with accurately assessing incidence. This is because the recurrence rate or apparent incidence after colonoscopic polypectomy includes the true incidence of new polyp formation plus the incidence of missed polyps from the initial colonoscopy. Many studies have indicated the number of adenomas on initial examination as the most significant predictor for missed adenoma and incidence of adenoma on surveillance colonoscopy. In Japan, many facets of colonoscopic examination differ from those in Western countries. Further studies are recommended to establish an appropriate and original Japanese colonoscopy surveillance program for use after polypectomy, based on guidelines from the United States.