Merino wool graduated compression stocking increases lower limb venous blood flow: A randomized controlled trial
- 453 Downloads
Graduated compression stockings represent a nonpharmacological approach to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) due to prolonged immobility through reducing lower limb venous stasis. A novel merino wool, double-layer, below-knee graduated compression stocking has been developed to reduce the risk of air travel-related DVT and PE.
Twenty healthy adult participants were randomized to wear the novel graduated compression stocking on either the left or right leg. Doppler ultrasound measurements of popliteal venous blood flow were made on both legs over a 120-minute period. The primary outcome was peak systolic velocity in the popliteal vein at 120 minutes. Secondary outcomes included mean flow velocity, total volume flow, vein cross-sectional area, and change in ankle and calf measurements.
The popliteal vein peak systolic velocity was 0.35 cm/s (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.22 to 0.49, P<0.001) higher with stocking use at 120 minutes, a difference of 24%. Mean flow velocity and total volume flow were also significantly higher with stocking use. Ankle and calf circumference were decreased with stocking use, with an overall difference of −6.3 mm (95% CI, −11.3 to −1.2, P=0.021) and −7.9 mm (95% CI, −13.3 to −2.4, P=0.011), respectively.
The novel merino wool double-layer, below-knee graduated compression stocking increases lower limb venous blood flow during prolonged seated immobility. Its use is likely to reduce the risk of DVT and PE in situations of prolonged seated immobility, such as long-distance air travel. The reduction in lower limb swelling associated with their use suggests that the stockings are likely to have utility in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and lymphedema.
Keywordsblood flow compression stockings Doppler ultrasound popliteal vein venous thromboembolism
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 14.Beasley R, Heuser P, Raymond N. SIT (seated immobility thromboembolism) syndrome: a 21st century lifestyle hazard. NZ Med J. 2005;118:U1376.Google Scholar
- 20.Sachdeva A, Dalton M, Amaragiri SV, Lees T. Elastic compression stockings for prevention of deep vein thrombosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(7):CD001484Google Scholar
- 22.Kerr NC, et al. A comparison of the effects of microorganisms and freezing on the degradation of wool. Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 9. E. G. Edyvean, Institute of Chemical Engineers. 1995;96-100.Google Scholar
- 23.Leeder JD. Chapter 3: Wool the super sorber. In: Leeder JD. Wool — Nature’s Wonder Fibre. Ocean Grove, Vic: Australasian Textile Publishers; 1984:13–16.Google Scholar
- 24.Levin E, Mackintosh D, Baker T, Weatherall M, Beasley R. Effect of sitting in ergonomic chairs on lower limb venous blood flow. Occupat Ergonom. 2009;8:125–132.Google Scholar
- 30.Kalodiki E, Ellis M, Kakkos SK, Williams A, Davies AH, Geroulakos G. Immediate hemodynamic effect of the additional use of the SCD EXPRESS compression system in patients with venous ulcers treated with the four-layer compression bandaging system. Eur J Endovasc Surg. 2007;33:483–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar