Advances in Therapy

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 995–1009

Vitamin C metabolites, independent of smoking status, significantly enhance leukocyte, but not plasma ascorbate concentrations

  • Mark A. Moyad
  • Maile A. Combs
  • Angelica S. Vrablic
  • Janet Velasquez
  • Benilda Turner
  • Samuel Bernal
Original Research



The objective of this study was to test the effects of acute doses of vitamin C alone, calcium ascorbate with vitamin C metabolites, and placebo, on total plasma and leukocyte vitamin C concentrations over 24 hours.


A double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover study was performed consisting of four separate phases lasting 24 hours each and utilizing one of four oral 1000-mg preparations within each phase (one of vitamin C alone, two separate vitamin C formulations of calcium ascorbate with vitamin C metabolites, and placebo). There was a 7-day washout between phases, and blood draws at seven time points within each phase of the study for a total of 28 serologic measurements per subject and 420 total measurements for the entire clinical trial. Vitamin C concentration in plasma and leukocytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline and at six sequential time periods over 24 hours.


Fifteen healthy males were enrolled, aged 18–39 years; nine were had never smoked and six were chronic smokers. No significant difference in plasma vitamin C levels was observed when comparing the different preparations. However, at 24 hours, calcium ascorbate with metabolites resulted in significantly higher concentrations of vitamin C in leukocytes (P<0.0001) compared with vitamin C alone. These results were similar for both metabolite formulations, and independent of smoking status.


Regardless of smoking status, vitamin C metabolites may enhance leukocyte utilization of vitamin C itself, despite no consistent difference in plasma levels among the different preparations. A larger clinical investigation is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings, and to determine the clinical relevance of this impact on overall immune function.


ascorbic acid calcium threonate immune function vitamin C metabolites white blood cells 


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Copyright information

© Springer Healthcare Communications 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. Moyad
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maile A. Combs
    • 1
    • 2
  • Angelica S. Vrablic
    • 1
    • 2
  • Janet Velasquez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Benilda Turner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Samuel Bernal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of Michigan Medical CenterAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.San Fernando Valley Program, Sepulveda VA Medical CenterUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Jenkins/Pokempner Director of Preventive & Alternative MedicineUniversity of Michigan Medical Center, Department of UrologyAnn ArborUSA

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