To report three cases of autoimmune ataxia patients with positive neurochondrin (NCDN) antibodies. Patients with unknown cerebellar ataxia were screened for autoimmune cerebellar ataxia (ACA)-related antibodies, including glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor (Tr/DNER), zinc finger protein 4 (ZIC4), inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (ITPR1), Homer protein homologue 3 (Homer-3), neurochondrin (NCDN), Purkinje cell antibody 2 (PCA-2) and carbonic anhydrase-related protein VII (CARPVII). The antibodies were assessed by indirect immunofluorescence using transfected cells (cell-based assay, CBA) and monkey cerebellum (tissue-based assay, TBA) with the multi-antigen co-plate biochip mosaic technique. Patients with positive antibodies received immunotherapy and were followed up in the clinic. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and outcomes of antibody-positive patients were described, analysed and compared with previously reported cases. The NCDN antibody was positive in three male patients in whom the onset ages were four years and 11 months, two years and seven months and 67 years old. Serum antibody titres were 1:32, 1:100 and 1:320. Cerebral ataxia was the most prominent presentation. Cerebellar atrophy was found in one of the patients. Immunotherapy was effective in all three patients. The NCDN antibody is associated with autoimmune ataxia, and it has been suggested that the NCDN antibody should be tested in patients with cerebellar ataxia who are negative for routine ACA antibodies. Early immunotherapy may have a beneficial impact on prognosis.
Neurochondrin NCDN Autoimmune Cerebellar Ataxia
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The authors would like to thank Dr. Ren Xiaotun, Ding Changhong, Hang Tongli and Feng Weixing for the helpful discussions.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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