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The Cerebellum

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 1017–1035 | Cite as

The Role of Astrocytes in the Development of the Cerebellum

  • Ana Paula Bergamo Araujo
  • Raul Carpi-Santos
  • Flávia Carvalho Alcantara GomesEmail author
Review

Abstract

Astrocytes, initially described as merely support cells, are now known as a heterogeneous population of cells actively involved in a variety of biological functions such as: neuronal migration and differentiation; regulation of cerebral blood flow; metabolic control of extracellular potassium concentration; and modulation of synapse formation and elimination; among others. Cerebellar glial cells have been shown to play a significant role in proliferation, differentiation, migration, and synaptogenesis. However, less evidence is available about the role of neuron-astrocyte interactions during cerebellar development and their impact on diseases of the cerebellum. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms underlying cellular interactions, specifically neuron-astrocyte interactions, during cerebellar development, function, and disease. We will discuss how cerebellar glia, astrocytes, and Bergmann glia play a fundamental role in several steps of cerebellar development, such as granule cell migration, axonal growth, neuronal differentiation, and synapse formation, and in diseases associated with the cerebellum. We will focus on how astrocytes and thyroid hormones impact cerebellar development. Furthermore, we will provide evidence of how growth factors secreted by glial cells, such as epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors, control cerebellar organogenesis. Finally, we will argue that glia are a key mediator of cerebellar development and that identification of molecules and pathways involved in neuron-glia interactions may contribute to a better understanding of cerebellar development and associated disorders.

Keywords

Cerebellar development Thyroid hormones Epidermal growth factor Transforming growth factor beta 1 Migration Synapse 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dra. Marimélia Porcionatto for gently providing us some of the images used in Figs. 1a, b and 2 (histological images). This manuscript was edited by American Journal Experts (AJE).

Funding

This work was supported by grants from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia do Ministério da Saúde (Decit), and Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Ciências BiomédicasUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

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