Cerebellar Structural Variations in Subjects with Different Hypnotizability
- 75 Downloads
Hypnotizability—the proneness to accept suggestions and behave accordingly—has a number of physiological and behavioral correlates (postural, visuomotor, and pain control) which suggest a possible involvement of cerebellar function and/or structure. The present study was aimed at investigating the association between cerebellar macro- or micro-structural variations (analyzed through a voxel-based morphometry and a diffusion tensor imaging approach) and hypnotic susceptibility. We also estimated morphometric variations of cerebral gray matter structures, to support current evidence of hypnotizability-related differences in some cerebral areas. High (highs, N = 12), and low (lows, N = 37) hypnotizable healthy participants (according to the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, form A) were submitted to a high field (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging protocol. In comparison to lows, highs showed smaller gray matter volumes in left cerebellar lobules IV/V and VI at uncorrected level, with the results in left lobule IV/V maintained also at corrected level. Highs showed also gray matter volumes smaller than lows in right inferior temporal gyrus, middle and superior orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and supramarginal parietal gyrus, as well as in left gyrus rectus, insula, and middle temporal cortex at uncorrected level. Results of right inferior temporal gyrus survived also at corrected level. Analyses on micro-structural data failed to reveal any significant association. The here found morphological variations allow to extend the traditional cortico-centric view of hypnotizability to the cerebellar regions, suggesting that cerebellar peculiarities may sustain hypnotizability-related differences in sensorimotor integration and emotional control.
KeywordsHypnotizability Cerebellum Voxel-based morphometry Diffusion tensor imaging Individual differences
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The Local Ethics Committee of the I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation approved the study and written consent was obtained from all participants after a full explanation of the study procedures. The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional committees on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 11.Jamieson GA, Burgess AP. Hypnotic induction is followed by state-like changes in the organization of EEG functional connectivity in the theta and beta frequency bands in high-hypnotically susceptible individuals. Front Hum Neurosci. Switzerland. 2014;8:528.Google Scholar
- 13.Cojan Y, Piguet C, Vuilleumier P. What makes your brain suggestible? Hypnotizability is associated with differential brain activity during attention outside hypnosis. Neuroimage [Internet]. Elsevier Inc.; 2015;117:367–74. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.05.076
- 14.McGeown WJ, Mazzoni G, Vannucci M, Venneri A. Structural and functional correlates of hypnotic depth and suggestibility. Psychiatry Res - Neuroimaging [internet]. Elsevier; 2015;231:151–159. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.11.015
- 20.Weitzenhoffer AM Hilgard E. Scala Stanford di Suscettibilità Ipnotica, forme A, B. Versione italiana. Organizzazioni Speciali Firenze; 1959.Google Scholar
- 23.Laricchiuta D, Petrosini L, Picerni E, Cutuli D, Iorio M, Chiapponi C, et al. The embodied emotion in cerebellum: a neuroimaging study of alexithymia. Brain Struct Funct. 2014;Google Scholar
- 25.Picerni E, Petrosini L, Piras F, Laricchiuta D, Cutuli D, Chiapponi C, et al. New evidence for the cerebellar involvement in personality traits. Front Behav Neurosci [Internet]. 2013;7:133. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3788336&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
- 30.McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, Hyman BT, Jack CRJ, Kawas CH, et al. The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement U S. 2011;7:263–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.First MB, Gibbon M, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders (SCID-II). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1997.Google Scholar
- 34.Wiest-Daessle N, Prima S, Coupe P, Morrissey SP, Barillot C. Rician noise removal by non-local means filtering for low signal-to-noise ratio MRI: applications to DT-MRI. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. Germany. 2008;11:171–9.Google Scholar
- 36.Sykova E, Nicholson C. Diffusion in brain extracellular space. Physiol Rev United States. 2008;88:1277–340.Google Scholar
- 38.Pierpaoli C, Jezzard P, Basser PJ, Barnett A, Di Chiro G. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of the human brain. Radiology United States. 1996;201:637–48.Google Scholar
- 39.Andersson JLR, Jenkinson M, Smith S. Non-linear registration, aka spatial normalisation. FMRIB Technial Report TR07JA2. Oxford Cent Funct Magn Reson Imaging Brain, Dep Clin Neurol Oxford Univ Oxford, UK. 2007;22.Google Scholar
- 40.Smith SM, Jenkinson M, Johansen-Berg H, Rueckert D, Nichols TE, Mackay CE, Watkins KE, Ciccarelli O, Cader MZ, Matthews PM, Behrens TEJ Tract-based spatial statistics: voxelwise analysis of multi-subject diffusion data. Neuroimage. United States; 2006;31:1487–1505.Google Scholar
- 42.Diedrichsen J, Balsters JH, Flavell J, Cussans E, Ramnani N. A probabilistic MR atlas of the human cerebellum. Neuroimage [Internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 2009 [cited 2014 Jul 11];46:39–46. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19457380.
- 43.Winkler AM, Ridgway GR, Webster MA, Smith SM, Nichols TE. Permutation inference for the general linear model. Neuroimage [internet]. The Authors; 2014;92:381–397. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.01.060
- 46.Scattina E, Huber A, Menzocchi M, Paoletti G, Carli G, Manzoni D, et al. Postural effects of imagined leg pain as a function of hypnotizability. Exp brain Res. Germany; 2012;216:341–348.Google Scholar
- 47.Stoodley CJ, Schmahmann JD. Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and affective processing. Cortex [Internet]. Elsevier Srl; 2010 [cited 2014 Jul 12];46:831–44. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2873095&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
- 50.Halligan PW, Athwal BS, Oakley DA, Frackowiak RS. Imaging hypnotic paralysis: implications for conversion hysteria. Lancet (London, England). England; 2000. p. 986–7.Google Scholar
- 51.O’Reilly JX, Beckmann CF, Tomassini V, Ramnani N, Johansen-Berg H. Distinct and overlapping functional zones in the cerebellum defined by resting state functional connectivity. Cereb Cortex [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2014 Jul 30];20:953–65. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2837094&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
- 52.Sultan F, Augath M, Hamodeh S, Murayama Y, Oeltermann A, Rauch A, Thier P Unravelling cerebellar pathways with high temporal precision targeting motor and extensive sensory and parietal networks. Nat Commun [Internet]. Nat Publ Group; 2012;3:924. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1912
- 59.Ebisch SJH, Bello A, Spitoni GF, Perrucci MG, Gallese V, Committeri G, Pastorelli C, Pizzamiglio L Emotional susceptibility trait modulates insula responses and functional connectivity in flavor processing. Front Behav Neurosci [Internet] 2015;9:1–14. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00297
- 64.Allen G, McColl R, Barnard H, Ringe WK, Fleckenstein J, Cullum CM. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellar-prefrontal and cerebellar-parietal functional connectivity. Neuroimage. 2005;Google Scholar
- 65.Oulad Ben Taib N, Manto M. Reinstating the ability of the motor cortex to modulate cutaneomuscular reflexes in hemicerebellectomized rats. Brain Res. 2008;Google Scholar
- 66.Olivito G, Dayan M, Battistoni V, Clausi S, Cercignani M, Molinari M, et al. Bilateral effects of unilateral cerebellar lesions as detected by voxel based morphometry and diffusion imaging. PLoS One. 2017;Google Scholar
- 71.Ito M. Error detection and representation in the olivo-cerebellar system. Front Neural Circuits. Switzerland. 2013;7:1.Google Scholar