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The Cerebellum

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 521–530 | Cite as

Radiological Imaging in Ataxia Telangiectasia: a Review

  • Ishani Sahama
  • Kate Sinclair
  • Kerstin Pannek
  • Martin Lavin
  • Stephen RoseEmail author
Review

Abstract

The human genetic disorder ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is characterised by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, radiosensitivity, cell cycle checkpoint defects, genomic instability and cancer predisposition. Progressive cerebellar ataxia represents the most debilitating aspect of this disorder. At present, there is no therapy available to cure or prevent the progressive symptoms of A-T. While it is possible to alleviate some of the symptoms associated with immunodeficiency and deficient lung function, neither the predisposition to cancer nor the progressive neurodegeneration can be prevented. Significant effort has focused on improving our understanding of various clinical, genetic and immunological aspects of A-T; however, little attention has been directed towards identifying altered brain structure and function using MRI. To date, most imaging studies have reported radiological anomalies in A-T. This review outlines the clinical and biological features of A-T along with known radiological imaging anomalies. In addition, we briefly discuss the advent of high-resolution MRI in conjunction with diffusion-weighted imaging, which enables improved investigation of the microstructural tissue environment, giving insight into the loss in integrity of motor networks due to abnormal neurodevelopmental or progressive neurodegenerative processes. Such imaging approaches have yet to be applied in the study of A-T and could provide important new information regarding the relationship between mutation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene and the integrity of motor circuitry.

Keywords

Ataxia telangiectasia Cerebellum Magnetic resonance imaging Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging 

Abbreviations

A-T

Ataxia telangiectasia

dMRI

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging

DTI

Diffusion tensor imaging

GM

Grey matter

HARDI

High angular resolution diffusion imaging

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

WM

White matter

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to acknowledge the A-T Children’s Project (USA) and BrAshA-T (Australia) for their funding support, Prof Roslyn Boyd of the Queensland Cerebral Palsy and Rehabilitation Research Centre for the provision of control participants in our study, Ms Kate Munro of the Neurosciences Department in the Queensland Royal Children’s Hospital for providing clinical support and Aiman Al Najjar and Anita Burns of the University of Queensland Centre of Advanced Imaging (CAI) for their assistance in acquisition of the MRI data.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ishani Sahama
    • 1
  • Kate Sinclair
    • 2
  • Kerstin Pannek
    • 3
  • Martin Lavin
    • 4
    • 5
  • Stephen Rose
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.School of MedicineThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Neurology, The Royal Children’s HospitalBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganisationCentre for Computational InformaticsBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Queensland Institute of Medical ResearchRoyal Brisbane Hospital CampusBrisbaneAustralia
  5. 5.University of Queensland Centre for Clinical ResearchBrisbaneAustralia

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