Hypothalamic Histaminergic and Orexinergic Modulation on Cerebellar and Vestibular Motor Control
- 285 Downloads
Somatic–nonsomatic integration is critical for generation and execution of an appropriate and coordinated behavioral response to changes in internal and external environments. However, the underlying neural substrates and mechanisms are still enigmatic. Intriguingly, the central histaminergic and orexinergic systems originating from the hypothalamus, a high autonomic regulatory center, innervate almost the whole brain including various subcortical motor structures, particularly the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei. Here, we suggest that the hypothalamic histaminergic and orexinergic system bridging the nonsomatic center to somatic motor structures may actively modulate the cerebellar and vestibular nuclear neurons and subsequently participate in motor control and somatic–nonsomatic integration.
KeywordsHistamine Orexin Hypothalamus Cerebellum Vestibular nuclei Motor control
The works were supported by grants 31070959, 31071021, 31171050, and NSFC/RGC Joint Research Scheme 30931160433 from the National Natural Science Foundation of China; RFDP grant 20100091110016, NCET Program, and Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities 1095020821 from the State Educational Ministry of China; grant BK2011014 from the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China.
- 13.Zhuang QX, Wu YH, Wu GY, Zhu JN, Wang JJ. Histamine excites rat superior vestibular nuclear neurons via postsynaptic H1 and H2 receptors in vitro. NeuroSignals. 2012. doi: 10.1159/000341980.