The Cerebellum

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 28–40 | Cite as

Subcellular TSC22D4 Localization in Cerebellum Granule Neurons of the Mouse Depends on Development and Differentiation

  • Sonia Canterini
  • Adriana Bosco
  • Valentina Carletti
  • Andrea Fuso
  • Armando Curci
  • Franco Mangia
  • Maria Teresa FiorenzaEmail author


We previously demonstrated that TSC22D4, a protein encoded by the TGF-β1-activated gene Tsc22d4 (Thg-1pit) and highly expressed in postnatal and adult mouse cerebellum with multiple post-translationally modified protein forms, moves to nucleus when in vitro differentiated cerebellum granule neurons (CGNs) are committed to apoptosis by hyperpolarizing KCl concentrations in the culture medium. We have now studied TSC22D4 cytoplasmic/nuclear localization in CGNs and Purkinje cells: (1) during CGN differentiation/maturation in vivo, (2) during CGN differentiation in vitro, and (3) by in vitro culturing ex vivo cerebellum slices under conditions favoring/inhibiting CGN/Purkinje cell differentiation. We show that TSC22D4 displays both nuclear and cytoplasmic localizations in undifferentiated, early postnatal cerebellum CGNs, irrespectively of CGN proliferation/migration from external to internal granule cell layer, and that it specifically accumulates in the somatodendritic and synaptic compartments when CGNs mature, as indicated by TSC22D4 abundance at the level of adult cerebellum glomeruli and apparent lack in CGN nuclei. These features were also observed in cerebellum slices cultured in vitro under conditions favoring/inhibiting CGN/Purkinje cell differentiation. In vitro TSC22D4 silencing with siRNAs blocked CGN differentiation and inhibited neurite elongation in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells, pinpointing the relevance of this protein to CGN differentiation.


Cerebellum granule neurons TSC22D proteins Cerebellum glomeruli Organotypic slices Purkinje cells 



We thank Michele Giugliano for advice on cerebellum organotypic slices preparation. This work was supported by grants from Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti 2007–2010 (to F.M.) and Ateneo 2007 and 2008 (to M.T.F.).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicting financial or other competing interests.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary Fig. 1

A representative confocal immunofluorescence analysis of TSC22D4 expression and localization in PN9 cerebellum histological sections. The specificity of TSC22D4 immunostaining was assessed by omitting the anti-TSC22D4 antibody (CTRL). Note the somatodendritic, but not nuclear, TSC22D4 localization in Purkinje cells (asterisks). EGL, external granular layer; IGL, internal granule layer. Scale bar indicates 30 μm (JPEG 332 kb)

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High resolution image (EPS 2957 kb)
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Supplementary Fig. 2

Double TSC22D4 and Synaptophysin (Syp) immunostaining of PN40 cerebellum, analyzed by confocal microscopy. A representative histological section is shown in the panels. Inserts represent higher magnification (100×) of glomeruli. Asterisks and arrows indicate Purkinje cells and glomeruli, respectively. IGL, internal granular layer. Scale bars indicate 30 μm (panels) and 10 μm (inserts) (JPEG 2567 kb)

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High resolution image (EPS 9252 kb)
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Supplementary Fig. 3

Tsc22d4 mRNA expression in differentiating N1E-115 cells. DIV0 cells were cultured in vitro under conditions promoting either cell proliferation (medium containing 10% FBS) or differentiation (medium containing 2% FBS) and then processed for semiquantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of Tsc22d4 mRNA at increasing days of in vitro culture (DIV1-DIV6), taking the amount of GAPDH message as internal reference. Histograms represent the mean ± SEM of Tsc22d4/GAPDH ratios obtained in three independent experiments. (JPEG 211 kb)

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High resolution image (EPS 534 kb)
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Supplementary Fig. 4

a Analysis of CGN and Purkinje cell differentiation and viability in in vitro cultured cerebellum slices. Ex vivo PN12 cerebellum slices were cultured in vitro for 10 days in a medium containing 5 or 25 mM KCl, then incubated with 5 μM SYTOX orange fluorescent dye in PBS for 5 min and analyzed by DIC and fluorescence microscopy. Dead cells were identified by their SYTOX orange positivity staining. Brackets indicate Purkinje cells. Scale bars indicate 40 μm. b Analysis of DNA fragmentation. DNA was extracted from either freshly made PN12 cerebellum slices (CTRL) or slices that had been in vitro cultured for 10 days in the presence of either 25 mM or 5 mM KCl (JPEG 1369 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonia Canterini
    • 1
  • Adriana Bosco
    • 1
  • Valentina Carletti
    • 1
  • Andrea Fuso
    • 2
    • 3
  • Armando Curci
    • 4
  • Franco Mangia
    • 1
  • Maria Teresa Fiorenza
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Section of Neuroscience, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti and D. Bovet Research CenterSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Section of Neuroscience, D. Bovet Research CenterSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Surgery “P. Valdoni”Sapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  4. 4.Department of Psychology, Section of NeuroscienceSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly

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