Advertisement

School Mental Health

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 345–356 | Cite as

Exploring Youth Mental Health First Aider Training Outcomes by Workforce Affiliation: A Survey of Project AWARE Participants

  • Danielle HaggertyEmail author
  • John S. Carlson
  • Miles McNall
  • KyungSook Lee
  • Sarah Williams
Original Paper
  • 140 Downloads

Abstract

Youth Mental Health First Aid (YMHFA) is a public education program designed to improve youth mental health outcomes by training adults to notice mental health problems and help youth in seeking treatment. This study used a pre–post 3-month follow-up design to explore whether mental health literacy (MHL), perceived mental health stigma (MHS), and confidence in helping behavior differed across time between Youth Mental Health First Aiders (i.e., involved in Project Advancing Wellness and Resilience in Education) who are and are not members of the mental health workforce. As expected at pretest, mental health workforce first aiders scored significantly higher than non-mental health workforce first aiders for MHL and confidence in helping behavior (p < .001), but no differences were found for MHS. Non-mental health workforce aiders scored significantly better from pretest to posttest for MHL and confidence in helping behavior (p < .001), to levels consistent with participants from the mental health workforce, who did not show improvements at posttest over relatively high pretest levels. With no additional training, non-mental health workforce participants were able to maintain the positive gains at the 3-month follow-up. Results suggest that YMHFA training is effective in increasing non-mental health workforce professionals’ MHL and confidence to a level similar to that of their mental health workforce colleagues. Study findings suggest that YMHFA training may be too basic for mental health workforce professionals, and alternative trainings should be provided for them.

Keywords

Youth Mental Health First Aid Mental health Prevention Treatment Services 

Notes

Funding

This manuscript was supported by the Project AWARE grant.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aakre, J. M., Lucksted, A., & Browning-McNee, L. (2016). Evaluation of youth mental health first aid USA: A program to assist young people in psychological distress. Psychological Services, 13, 121–126.  https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anthony, B. (2016, June 24). Unified Theory of Behavior [Webinar].Google Scholar
  3. Bland, J., & Altman, D. (1997). Cronbach’s alpha. British Medical Journal, 314(7080), 572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Canady, V. A. (2013, June 6). MH community applauds White House launch of national dialogue. Mental Health Weekly. Retrieved from, http://www.mentalhealthweeklynews.com/Article-Detail/mh-community-applauds-white-house-launch-of-national-dialogue.aspx.
  5. Clay, R. A. (2013). Mental health first aid. American Psychological Association, 44, 32.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  7. Crisanti, A. S., Pasko, D. K., Pyeatt, C., Silverblatt, H., & Anastasoff, J. (2015). Dissemination challenges associated with mental health first aid in New Mexico: Insights from instructors. Journal of Rural Mental Health, 39, 13–21.  https://doi.org/10.1037/rmh0000013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dew, M. A., Bromet, E. J., Schulberg, H. C., Parkinson, D. K., & Curtis, E. C. (1991). Factors affecting service utilization for depression in a white collar population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 26, 230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gravetter, F. J., & Wallnau, L. B. (2008). Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  10. Gryglewicz, K., Childs, K. K., & Soderstrom, M. F. P. (2018). An evaluation of youth mental health first aid training in school settings. School Mental Health, 10, 48–60.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-018-9246-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hadlaczky, G., Hökby, S., Mkrtchian, A., Carli, V., & Wasserman, D. (2014). Mental health first aid is an effective public health intervention for improving knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour: A meta-analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 26, 467–475.  https://doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2014.924910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Henderson, C., Evans-Lacko, S., & Thornicroft, G. (2013). Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs. American Journal of Public Health, 103, 777–780.  https://doi.org/10.2102/AJPH.2012.301056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoge, M. A., Huey, L. Y., & O’Connell, M. J. (2004). Best practices in behavioral health workforce education and training. Administration and Policy In Mental Health, 32, 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jorm, A. F. (2000). Mental health literacy: Public knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 396–401.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.5.396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jorm, A. F. (2012). Mental health literacy: Empowering the community to take action for better mental health. The American Psychologist, 67, 231–243.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jorm, A. F., & Kitchener, B. A. (2011). Noting a landmark achievement: Mental health first aid training reaches 1% of Australian adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 808–813.  https://doi.org/10.3109/00048674.2011.594785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jorm, A. F., Kitchener, B. A., Sawyer, M. G., Scales, H., & Cvetkovski, S. (2010). Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: A cluster randomized trial. BMC Psychiatry.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-10-51.Google Scholar
  18. Kelly, C. M., Mithen, J. M., Fischer, J. A., Kitchener, B. A., Jorm, A. F., Lowe, A., et al. (2011). Youth mental health first aid: A description of the program and an initial evaluation. International Journal of Mental Health Systems.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-5-4.Google Scholar
  19. Kitchener, B., & Jorm, A. (2002). Mental health first aid training for the public: Evaluation of effects on knowledge, attitudes and helping behavior. BMC Psychiatry.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-2-10.Google Scholar
  20. Kitchener, B. A., & Jorm, A. F. (2004). Mental health first aid training in a workplace setting: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN13249129]. BMC Psychiatry.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-4-23.Google Scholar
  21. Kitchener, B. A., & Jorm, A. F. (2008). Mental health first aid: An international programme for early intervention. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 2, 55–61.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-7893.2007.00056.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kitchener, B. A., Jorm, A. F., & Kelly, C. M. (2012). Youth Mental Health First Aid USA for adults assisting young people [manual]. Washington, D.C.: National Council for Behavioral Health.Google Scholar
  23. Kohn, R., Saxena, S., Levav, I., & Saraceno, B. (2004). The treatment gap in mental health care. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82, 858–866.Google Scholar
  24. Kovalchick, K. (2015). Project AWARE grant proposal.Google Scholar
  25. Kutcher, S., Bagnell, A., & Wei, Y. (2015). Mental health literacy in secondary schools. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24, 233–244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2014.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kutcher, S., Wei, Y., McLuckie, A., & Bullock, L. (2012). Educator mental health literacy: A programme evaluation of the teacher training education on the mental health high school curriculum guide. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 6, 83–93.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1754730X.2013.784615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lucksted, A., Mendenhall, A. N., Frauenholtz, S. I., & Aakre, J. M. (2015). Experiences of graduates of the mental health first aid—USA course. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 17, 169–183.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14623730.2015.1013670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mental Health First Aid. (2009). Retrieved from https://www.mentalhealthfirstaid.org/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2017). Mplus User’s Guide (8th ed.). CA: Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  30. O’Dwyer, L. M., & Parker, C. E. (2014). A primer for analyzing nested data: Multilevel modeling in SPSS using an example from a REL study. Retrieved from Regional Educational Laboratory at EDC Website: https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/northeast/pdf/REL_2015046.pdf.
  31. O’Connor, M., & Casey, L. (2015). The mental health literacy scale (MHLS): A new scale-based measure of mental health literacy. Psychiatry Research, 229, 511–516.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ross, A. M., Hart, L. M., Jorm, A. F., Kelly, C. M., & Kitchener, B. A. (2012). Development of key messages for adolescents on providing basic mental health first aid to peers: A delphi consensus study. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 6, 229–238.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-7893.2011.00331.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Swendeman, D., & Chorpita, B. F. (2012). Disruptive innovations for designing and diffusing evidence-based interventions. American Psychologist, 67, 463476.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a002818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sickel, A. E., Seacat, J. D., & Nabors, N. A. (2014). MHS update: A review of consequences. Advances in Mental Health, 12, 202–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. State of Michigan. (2015). Mental health professional list. Unpublished handout.Google Scholar
  36. Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53–55.  https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. U.S. Census Bureau. (2015, July 1). State & county Quickfacts: Kent County, Hillsdale County, Jackson County, Oakland County, MI. Retrieved January 27, 2017, from http://quickfacts.census.gov.
  38. Van de Velde, S., Broos, P., Van Bouwelen, M., De Win, R., Sermon, A., Verduyckt, J., et al. (2007). European first aid guidelines. Resuscitation, 72, 240–251.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2006.10.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Why Mental Health First Aid. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.thenationalcouncil.org/training-courses/mental-health-first-aid/.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danielle Haggerty
    • 1
    Email author
  • John S. Carlson
    • 1
  • Miles McNall
    • 1
  • KyungSook Lee
    • 1
  • Sarah Williams
    • 2
  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Michigan Department of EducationLansingUSA

Personalised recommendations