Toward a Blueprint for Trauma-Informed Service Delivery in Schools
- 3.2k Downloads
Recognition of the benefits to trauma-informed approaches is expanding, along with commensurate interest in extending delivery within school systems. Although information about trauma-informed approaches has quickly burgeoned, systematic attention to integration within multitiered service delivery frameworks has not occurred yet is essential to accurate, durable, and scalable implementation. In addition, there is a critical need to concurrently build a strong evidence base regarding trauma-informed service delivery in schools. In this paper, the literatures on trauma-informed approaches and multitiered frameworks for school-based service delivery are connected with the goal to provide suggestions toward building blueprints for trauma-informed service delivery in schools. Drawing from the literature on implementation blueprints for school-wide positive behavior supports, sections are organized around current knowledge about trauma-informed approaches with regard to blueprints for (a) implementation, (b) professional development, and (c) evaluation. Critical issues, strategy recommendations, and directions for research are discussed.
KeywordsTrauma-informed Response to intervention Chronic stress Multitiered frameworks
The authors wish to thank Division 16 of the American Psychological Association for supporting the Trauma-Informed Services Workgroup. Preparation of this manuscript was supported in part by funding provided by the Institute for Education Sciences, US Department of Education (R305A140543).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Algozzine, B., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Barrett, S., Dickey, S. R., Eber, L., et al. (2010). Evaluation blueprint for school-wide positive behavior support. Eugene, OR: National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Support. Retrieved from www.pbis.org.
- Amaya-Jackson, L., Reynolds, V., Murray, M. C., McCarthy, G., Nelson, A., Cherney, M. S., & March, J. S. (2003). Cognitive behavioral treatment for pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder: Protocol and application in school and community settings. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 10, 204–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- American Psychological Association Division 56 Education/Training Committee Report (June, 2007). Undergraduate and graduate training in trauma psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Baker, C. N., Brown, S., Wilcox, P., Overstreet, S., & Arora, P. (2016). The Attitudes Related To Trauma-Informed Care (ARTIC) scale: Examining the psychometrics of a scale that evaluates the trauma-informed care attitudes of service providers and educators. School Mental Health.Google Scholar
- Barrett, S., Eber, L., & Weist, M. (Eds.) (2013). Advancing educational effectiveness: Interconnecting school mental health and school-wide positive behavior support. Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/common/cms/files/Current%20Topics/Final-Monograph.pdf.
- Brock, S. E., Nickerson, A. B., Reeves, M. A., Jimerson, S. R., Lieberman, R. A., & Feinberg, T. A. (2009). School crisis prevention and intervention: The PREPaRE model. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
- Caplan, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy. (2003). Identifying and implementing educational practices supported by rigorous evidence: A user friendly guide. U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from http://coalition4evidence.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/PublicationUserFriendlyGuide03.pdf.
- Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2006). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Iyengar, S. (2011a). Community treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 165, 16–21. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.247.Google Scholar
- Cole, S. F., Eisner, A., Gregory, M., & Ristuccia, J. (2013). Creating and advocating for trauma-sensitive schools. Massachusetts Advocates for Children. Retrieved from http://www.traumasensitiveschools.com.
- Cowan, K. C., Vaillancourt, K., Rossen, E., & Pollitt, K. (2013). A framework for safe and successful schools [Brief]. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
- Dorado, J. S., Martinez, M., McArthur, L. E., & Liebovitz, T. (2015). Healthy Environments and Response to Trauma in Schools (HEARTS): A school-based, multi-level comprehensive prevention and intervention program for creating trauma-informed, safe and supportive schools. School Mental Heath.Google Scholar
- Farrell, A., Henry, D., Bradshaw, C., & Reischl, T. (in press). Designs for evaluating the community-level impact of comprehensive prevention programs: Examples from the CDC Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention.Google Scholar
- Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245–258. doi: 10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00017-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Foster, S., Rollefson, M., Doksum, T., Noonan, D., Robinson, G., & Teich, J. (2005). School Mental Health Services in the United States, 2002–2003. SAMHSA’s National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED499056.
- Gonzalez, A., Monzon, N., Solis, D., Jaycox, L., & Langley, A. (2016). Trauma exposure in elementary school children: Description of screening procedures, prevalence of exposure, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. School Mental Heath.Google Scholar
- Gresham, F. M. (2007). Evolution of the response-to-intervention concept: Empirical foundations and recent developments. In S. R. Jimerson, M. K. Burns, & A. VanDerHayden (Eds.), Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention (pp. 10–24). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hamoudi, A., Murray, D. W., Sorensen, L, & Fontaine, A. (2015). Self-regulation and toxic stress: A review of ecological, biological, and developmental studies of self-regulation and stress. OPRE Report # 2015-30, Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
- Hodgdon, H. B., Kinniburgh, K., Gabowitz, D., Blaustein, M. E., & Spinazzola, J. (2013). Development and implementation of trauma-informed programming in youth residential treatment centers using the ARC framework. Journal of Family Violence, 28, 679–692. doi: 10.1007/s10896-013-9531-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET): A research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6, 3–12. doi: 10.1177/10983007040060010201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jaycox, L. H., Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Walker, D. W., Langley, A. K., Gegenheimer, K., et al. (2010). Children’s mental health care following Hurricane Katrina: A field trial of trauma-focused psychotherapies. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 223–231. doi: 10.1002/jts.20518.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VanDerHayden, A. M. (2007). Response to intervention at school: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. In S. R. Jimerson, M. K. Burns, & A. VanDerHayden (Eds.), Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention (pp. 3–9). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Layne, C. M., Ippen, C. G., Strand, V., Stuber, M., Abramovitz, R., Reyes, G., et al. (2011). The Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma: A tool for training a trauma-informed workforce. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3, 243–252. doi: 10.1037/a0025039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- March, J. S., Amaya-Jackson, L., Murray, M. C., & Schulte, A. (1998). Cognitive–behavioral psychotherapy for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder after a single-incident stressor. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 585–593. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199806000-00008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Metz, A., Naoom, S. F., Halle, T., & Bartley, L. (2015). An integrated stage-based framework for implementation of early childhood programs and systems (OPRE Research Brief OPRE 2015-48). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
- Multiplying Connections Initiative. (2008). Trauma informed & developmentally sensitive services for children: Core competencies for effective practice. Philadelphia, PA: Health Federation of Philadelphia. Retrieved from http://multiplyingconnections.org/sites/default/files/field_attachments/Multiplying%20Connections%20Core%20Competencies%20%28rev%205-10%29%5B1%5D.pdf.
- Nadeem, E., Jaycox, L. H., Kataoka, S. H., Langley, A. K., & Stein, B. D. (2011). Going to scale: Experiences implementing a school-based trauma intervention. School Psychology Review, 40, 549–568.Google Scholar
- National Center for PTSD, Dartmouth Child Trauma Research Group. (2011). An interview for children: Traumatic Events Screening Inventory (TESI-C). Retrieved from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/assessments/assessment-pdf/TESI-C.pdf.
- National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. In M. E. O’Connell, T. Boat & K. E. Warner (Eds.), Committee on the prevention of mental disorders and substance abuse among children, youth, and young adults: Research advances and promising interventions. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Slider, N. J., Connell, J. E., Gatti, S. L., Williams, K. L., et al. (2005). Treatment implementation following behavioral consultation in schools: A comparison of three follow-up strategies. School Psychology Review, 34, 87–106.Google Scholar
- Nutt, P. (2001). Contingency approaches applied to the implementation of strategic decisions. International journal of Business, 6, 53–84.Google Scholar
- Overstreet, S., & Chafouleas, S. M. (2016). Introduction to the special issue. School Mental Heath.Google Scholar
- Perry, D. L., Daniels, M. L., Scery, A., & Filipi, I. (2016). Facilitating trauma-informed school transformation: Challenges, solutions, and unanswered questions. School Mental Heath.Google Scholar
- Phillips, A. (2015, March 2). Mental health screening proposal would connect students, providers. The Gazette. Retrieved from http://thegazette.com/subject/news/education/mental-health-screening-proposal-would-connect-students-providers-20150302.
- Rivard, J. C., Bloom, S. L., McCorkle, D., & Abramovitz, R. (2005). Preliminary results of a study examining the implementation and effects of a trauma recovery framework for youths in residential treatment. Therapeutic Community: The International Journal for Therapeutic and Supportive Organizations, 26, 83–96.Google Scholar
- Sanetti, L. M. H., Fallon, L. M., & Collier-Meek, M. A. (2011). Treatment integrity assessment and intervention by school-based personnel: Practical applications based on a preliminary study. School Psychology Forum, 5, 87–102.Google Scholar
- Speciale, S. (2015, March 31). New program to focus on children exposed to traumatic events. Charleston Daily Mail. Retrieved from http://www.charlestondailymail.com/article/20150331/DM01/150339810.
- Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Kataoka, S. H., Wong, M., Tu, W., Elliott, M. N., & Fink, A. (2003). A mental health intervention for schoolchildren exposed to violence: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 603–611. doi: 10.1001/jama.290.5.603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Steinberg, A. M., & Beyerlein, B. (2013). UCLA PTSD Reaction Index: DSM-5 version. Retrieved from: http://www.nctsn.org/products/administration-and-scoring-ucla-ptsd-reaction-index-dsm-v.
- Stevens, J. E. (2012). Lincoln High School in Walla Walla, WA tries new approach to school discipline—Suspensions drop 85%. ACEs Too High. Retrieved from http://acestoohigh.com/2012/04/23/Iincoln-high-schooI-in-waIla-walia-wa-tries-new-approach-to-school-discipline-expulsions-drop-85/.
- Stevens, J. E. (2013a). At Cherokee Point Elementary, kids don’t conform to school; school conforms to kids. ACEs Too High. Retrieved from http://acestoohigh.com/2013/07/22/at-cherokee-point-elementary-kids-dont-conform-to-school-school-conforms-to-kids/.
- Stevens, J. E. (2013b). There’s no such thing as a bad kid in these Spokane, WA, trauma-informed elementary schools. ACEs Too High. Retrieved from http://acestoohigh.com/2013/08/20/spokaneschools/.
- Stormont, M., Reinke, W. M., Newcomer, L., Marchese, D., & Lewis, C. (2015). Coaching teachers’ use of social behavior interventions to improve children’s outcomes: A review of the literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17, 69–82. doi: 10.1177/1098300714550657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). SAMHSA’s concept of trauma and guidance for a trauma-informed approach (HHS Publication No. 14-4884). Retrieved from http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA14-4884/SMA14-4884.pdf.
- Sugai, G. & Stephan, S. (2013). Considerations for a school mental health implementation framework. In S. Barrett, L. Eber & M. Weist (Eds.), Advancing educational effectiveness: Interconnecting school mental health and school-wide positive behavior support (pp. 18–33). Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/common/cms/files/Current%20Topics/Final-Monograph.pdf.
- Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. (2010). Implementation blueprint and self-assessment positive behavioral interventions and supports. Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/Common/Cms/files/pbisresources/SWPBS_ImplementationBlueprint_vSep_23_2010.pdf.
- Trauma Informed Care Project. (n.d.). The agency self-assessment for trauma-informed care. Retrieved from: http://www.traumainformedcareproject.org/resources.php.
- U.S. Attorney General. (2012). Report of the Attorney General’s National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence. Retrieved from: http://www.justice.gov/defendingchildhood/cev-rpt-full.pdf.
- W. K. Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, MI: W. K. Kellogg Foundation.Google Scholar
- Wolpow, R., Johnson, M. M., Hertel, R., & Kincaid, S. O. (2011). The heart of learning and teaching: Compassion, resiliency, and academic success. Retrieved from: http://www.k12.wa.us/compassionateschools/pubdocs/TheHeartofLearningandTeaching.pdf.
- Woodbridge, M. W., Sumi, W. C., Thornton, S. P., Fabrikant, N., Rouspil, K. M., Langley, A. K., et al. (2016). Screening for trauma in early adolescence: Findings from a diverse school district. School Mental Health.Google Scholar