Advertisement

School Mental Health

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 89–102 | Cite as

Supportive and Controlling Parental Involvement as Predictors of Children’s Academic Achievement: Relations to Children’s ADHD Symptoms and Parenting Stress

  • Maria A. RogersEmail author
  • Judith Wiener
  • Imola Marton
  • Rosemary Tannock
Original Paper

Abstract

This study investigated the role of parenting stress, the parental involvement style, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in predicting academic achievement in 8- to 12-year-old children. Guided by the Family–School Relationships Model path analysis was used to compare the effects of a controlling versus supportive style of parental involvement in relation to children's learning. Results revealed that high levels of parenting stress were associated with the use of more controlling strategies regarding children’s academics, whereas lower stress was associated with a more supportive style of involvement. Controlling parental involvement was associated with more parent-rated symptoms of ADHD and lower academic achievement in children, while supportive involvement was associated with fewer parent-rated ADHD symptoms and higher achievement. The relation between both styles of parental involvement and academic achievement was accounted for by children’s inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, in the home. These findings demonstrate the combined risk of parenting stress, controlling parental involvement, and children’s inattentive behaviors for poor achievement in children.

Keywords

Parental involvement Parenting stress Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Inattention Academic achievement 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada for funding this project, as well as Daniella Biondic and Amy Hsu for their assistance.

References

  1. Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting stress index: Professional manual (3rd ed.). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Abikoff, H., & Gittelman, R. (1985). The normalizing effects of methylphenidate on the classroom behavior of ADHD children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 33–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adamakos, H., Ryan, K., Ulman, D. G., Pascoe, J., Diaz, R., & Chessare, J. (1986). Maternal social support as a predictor of mother-child stress and stimulation. Child Abuse and Neglect, 10, 463–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams, G. R., & Ryan, B. R. (2000). A longitudinal analysis of family relationships and children’s school achievement in one- and two-parent families. A report to Human Resources Development Canada. http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/pkrf/publications/research/2000-000180/page08.shtml
  5. Adams, G. R., Ryan, B. A., Ketsetzis, M., & Keating, L. (2000). Rule compliance and peer sociability: A study of family process, school-focused parent-child interactions, and children's classroom behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(2), 237–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker, D. D. (1994). Parenting stress and ADHD: A comparison of mothers and fathers. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2, 46–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barkley, R. A. (2006). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  8. Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2006). Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: Adaptive functioning in major life activities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 192–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biederman, J., Milberger, S., Faraone, S. V., Kiely, K., Guite, J., Mick, E., et al. (1995). Family environment risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A test of Rutter’s indicators of adversity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 464–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Byrne, B. M. (1998). Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  12. Callahan, K., Rademacher, J. A., & Hildreth, B. L. (1998). The effect of parent participation in strategies to improve the homework performance of students who are at risk. Remedial and Special Education, 19, 131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carte, E. T., Nigg, J. T., & Hinshaw, S. P. (1996). Neuropsychological functioning, motor speed, and language processing in boys with and without ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 481–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, N. J., Vallance, D. D., Barwick, M., Im, N., Menna, R., Horodezky, N. B., et al. (2000). The interface between ADHD and language impairment: An examination of language, achievement, and cognitive processing. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 353–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Conger, R. D., Patterson, G. R., & Ge, X. (1995). It takes two to replicate: A mediational model for the impact of parents' stress on adolescent adjustment. Child Development, 66(1), 80–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Conners, C. K. (1997). Conners’ ratings scales—revised: Technical manual. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems Inc.Google Scholar
  17. Currie, J., & Stabile, M. (2006). Child mental health and human capital accumulation: The case of ADHD. Journal of Health Economics, 25, 1094–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dally, K. (2006). The influence of phonological processing and inattentive behavior on reading acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 420–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deater-Deckard, K. (2004). Parenting stress. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Deater-Deckard, K., & Scarr, S. (1996). Parenting stress among dual-earner mothers and fathers: Are there gender differences? Journal of Family Psychology, 10(1), 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2003). ADHD and learning difficulties: What is the connection? In G. J. DuPaul & G. Stoner (Eds.), ADHD in the schools: Assessment and intervention strategies (pp. 72–108). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. DuPaul, G. J., Volpe, R. J., Jitendra, J., Lutz, G., Lorah, K. S., & Gruber, R. (2004). Elementary school students with ADHD: Predictors of academic achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 285–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eskilson, A., Wiley, M. G., Muehlbauer, G., & Dodder, L. (1986). Parental pressure, self-esteem, and adolescent reported deviance: Bending the twig too far. Adolescence, 21, 501–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fassinger, R. E. (1987). Use of structural equation modeling in counseling psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology: Special Issue: Quantitative Foundations of Counseling Psychology Research, 34, 425–436.Google Scholar
  27. Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (1995). Early disruptive behavior, IQ, and later school achievement and delinquent behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 183–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Franceschini, A. (2004). A longitudinal study of family relationships as mediators of children’s schooling outcomes. Unpublished Master’s thesis. University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.Google Scholar
  29. Frazier, T. W., Youngstrom, E. A., Glutting, J. J., & Watkins, M. W. (2007). ADHD and achievement: Meta-analysis of the child, adolescent, and adult literature and a concomitant study with college students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, 49–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Frick, P. J., Kamphaus, R. W., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Christ, M. A. G., Hart, E. L., et al. (1991). Academic underachievement and the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 289–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gerrard, L., & Anastopoulos, A. D. (2005, August). The relationship between ADHD and mother-child attachment in early childhood. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  32. Ginsburg, G. S., & Bronstein, P. (1993). Family factors related to children’s intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation and academic performance. Child Development, 64, 1461–1474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldstein, L. H., Harvey, E. A., Friedman-Weieneth, J. L., Peirce, C., Tellert, A., & Sippel, J. C. (2007). Examining subtypes of behavior problems among 3-year-old children, part II: Investigating differences in parent psychopathology, couple conflict, and other family stressors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 111–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grolnick, W. S. (2003). The psychology of parental control: How well-meant parenting backfires. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  35. Grolnick, W. S., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1991). The inner resources for school achievement: Motivational mediators of children’s perceptions of their parents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 508–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Habboushe, D. F., Daniel-Crotty, S., Karustis, J. L., Leff, S. S., Costigan, T. E., Goldstien, S. G., et al. (2001). A family-school intervention program for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 8, 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hinshaw, S. P. (1992). Externalizing behavior problems and academic underachievement in childhood and adolescence: Causal relationship and underlying mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 127–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holmbeck, G. N. (1997). Toward terminological, conceptual, and statistical clarity in the study of mediators and moderators: Examples from the child-clinical and pediatric literatures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 599–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hong, S., & Ho, H. Z. (2005). Direct and indirect longitudinal effects of parental involvement on student achievement: Second-order latent growth modeling across ethnic groups. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (1995). Parental involvement in children’s education: Why does it make a difference? Teachers College Record, 97, 310–331.Google Scholar
  41. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (2005). Final performance report for OERI grant # R305T010673. The social context of parental involvement: A path to enhanced achievement. Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005.Google Scholar
  42. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M. T., Sandler, H. M., Whetsel, D., Green, C. L., Wilkins, A. S., et al. (2005). Why do parents become involved? Research findings and implications. Elementary School Journal, 106, 105–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoyle, R. H. (1995). Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications. An introduction focusing on AMOS. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling. Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 76–99). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  45. Johnston, C., Hommersen, P., & Siepp, C. (2008). Acceptability of behavioral and pharmacological treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to child and parent characteristics. Behavior Therapy, 39, 22–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Johnston, C., & Jassy, J. S. (2007). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional/Conduct problems: Links to parent-child interactions. Journal of Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 16, 74–79.Google Scholar
  47. Johnston, C., & Mash, E. J. (2001). Families of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Review and recommendations for future research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4, 183–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnston, C., Murray, C., Hinshaw, S. P., Pelham, W. E., & Hoza, B. (2002). Responsiveness of interactions of mothers and sons with ADHD: Relations to maternal and child characteristics. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 77–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Johnston, C., & Scoular, D. (2008). The family context of ADHD. In K. McBurnett & L. Pfiffner (Eds.), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Concepts, controversies, new directions (pp. 41–50). New York: Informa Health Care.Google Scholar
  50. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International; Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  51. Joussemet, M., Koestner, R., Lekes, N., & Landry, R. (2005). A longitudinal study of the relationship of maternal autonomy-support to children’s adjustment and achievement in school. Journal of Personality, 73, 1215–1236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ketsetzis, M., Ryan, B. A., & Adams, G. R. (1998). Family processes, parent-child interactions, and child characteristics influencing school-based social adjustment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 374–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Khamis, V. (2006). Family environment and parenting as predictors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Palestinian children. Journal of Social Service Research, 32, 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Klein, D. N., & Riso, L. P. (1993). Psychiatric disorders: Problems of boundaries and comorbidity. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  55. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  56. Koutsoulis, M. K., & Campbell, J. R. (2001). Family processes affect students’ motivation, and science and math achievement in Cypriot high schools. Structural Equation Modeling, 8, 108–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lifford, K. J., Harold, G. T., & Thapar, A. (2008). Parent-child relationships and ADHD symptoms: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 285–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Loe, I. M., & Feldman, H. M. (2007). Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 643–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Loehlin, J. C. (1992). Latent variable models: An introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  60. Mannuzza, S., Klein, R. G., & Moulton, J. L. (2002). Young adult outcome of children with “situational” hyperactivity: A prospective controlled follow-up study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 191–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martinez-Pons, M. (1996). Test of a model of parental inducement of academic self-regulation. Journal of Experimental Education, 64, 213–227.Google Scholar
  62. McLaughlin, D. P., & Harrison, C. A. (2006). Parenting practices of mothers of children with ADHD: The role of maternal and child factors. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 11, 82–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McLoyd, V. C., Jayaratne, T. E., Ceballo, R., & Borquez, J. (1994). Unemployment and work interruption among African American single mothers: Effects on parenting and adolescent socioemotional functioning. Child Development, 65, 562–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McLoyd, V. C., & Wilson, L. (1991). The strain of living poor: Parenting, social support and child mental health. In A. C. Hutson (Ed.), Children in poverty (pp. 105–135). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Midgett, J. D. (2000). Exploring parental school-focused behaviors: A factor analysis of parents’ and children’ reports. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.Google Scholar
  66. Midgett, J., Ryan, B. A., Adams, G. R., & Corville-Smith, J. (2002). Complicating achievement and self-esteem: Considering the joint effects of child characteristics and parent-child interactions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 132–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Niggli, A., Trautwein, U., Schnyder, I., Ludtke, O., & Neumann, M. (2007). Parental homework support can be beneficial, but parental intrusion is detrimental: Family background, parental homework supervision, and performance gains. Psychologie In Erziehung und Unterricht, 54, 1–14.Google Scholar
  68. Pfiffner, L. J., & Barkley, R. A. (1998). Treatment of ADHD in school settings. In R. A. Barkley (Ed.), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 458–490). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  69. Pomerantz, E. M., & Eaton, M. M. (2001). Maternal intrusive support in the academic context: Transactional socialization processes. Developmental Psychology, 37, 174–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pomerantz, E. M., Grolnick, W. S., & Price, C. E. (2005). The role of parents in how children approach achievement: A dynamic process perspective. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  71. Pomerantz, E. M., Moorman, E. A., & Litwack, S. D. (2007). The how, whom, and why of parents’ involvement in children’s academic lives: More is not always better. Review of Educational Research, 77, 373–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Power, T. J., Karustis, J. L., & Habboushe, D. F. (2001). Homework success for children with ADHD: A family-school intervention program. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  73. Power, T. J., Werba, B. E., Watkins, M. W., Angelucci, J. G., & Eiraldi, R. B. (2006). Patterns of parent-reported homework problems among ADHD-referred and non-referred children. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, 13–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rabiner, D., & Coie, J. D. (2000). Early attention problems and children’s reading achievement: A longitudinal investigation. The conduct problems prevention research group. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 859–867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Raggi, V. L., & Chronis, A. M. (2006). Interventions to address the academic impairment of children and adolescents with ADHD. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 9, 85–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rapport, M. D., Scanlan, S. W., & Denney, C. B. (1999). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and scholastic achievement: A model of dual developmental pathways. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1169–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Reay, D. (2000). A useful extension of Bourdieu’s conceptual framework? Emotional capital as a way of understanding mothers’ involvement in their children’s education? Sociological Review, 48, 568–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rogers, M. A. (2002). Predictors of academic achievement: An exploration of child and family predictors. Unpublished Master’s thesis. University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.Google Scholar
  79. Rogers, M. A. (2008). Parental involvement in children with and without ADHD. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Google Scholar
  80. Rogers, M. A., Theule, J., Ryan, B., Adams, G., & Keating, L. (2009). Parental involvement and children’s school achievement: The mediating role of children’s academic competence. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 24, 34–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rogers, M. A., Wiener, J., Marton, I., & Tannock, R. (2009). Parental involvement in children’s learning: Comparing parents of children with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Journal of School Psychology, 47, 167–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ryan, B. A., & Adams, G. R. (1995). The family-school relationships model. In B. Ryan, et al. (Eds.), The family-school connection: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 3–28). California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  83. Sattler, J. M. (2001). Assessment of children: Cognitive applications (4th ed.). La Mesa, CA: Jerome M. Sattler Publisher, Inc.Google Scholar
  84. Saudino, K. J., & Plomin, R. (2007). Why are hyperactivity and academic achievement related? Child Development, 78, 972–986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Seigner, R. (1986). Mothers’ behaviors and sons’ performance: An initial test of an academic achievement path model. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 32, 153–166.Google Scholar
  86. Stiefel, I. (1997). Can disturbance in attachment contribute to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? A case discussion. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2, 45–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Todd, R. D., Sitdhiraksa, N., Reich, W., Ji, T. H. C., Joyner, C. A., Heath, A. C., et al. (2002). Discrimination of DSM-IV and latent class attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes by educational and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of child and adolescent twins. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 820–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Torgersen, R., Gjervan, B., & Rasmussen, K. (2006). ADHD in adults: A study of clinical characteristics, impairment, and comorbidity. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 38–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tripp, G., Schaughency, E. A., Langlands, R., & Mouat, K. (2007). Family interactions in children with and without ADHD. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Walker, J. M. T., Wilkins, A. S., Dallaire, J. R., Sandler, H. M., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2005). Parental involvement: Model revision through scale development. Elementary School Journal, 106, 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Warner-Rogers, J., Taylor, A., Taylor, E., & Sandberg, S. (2000). Inattentive behaviour in childhood: Epidemiology and implications for development. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 520–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  93. Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children—IV. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  94. Westby, C. E., & Cutler, S. K. (1994). Language and ADHD: Understanding the bases and treatment of self-regulatory deficits. Topics in Language Disorders Special Issue: ADD and It’s Relationship to Spoken and Written Language, 14, 58–76.Google Scholar
  95. Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., Nigg, J. T., Faraone, S. V., & Pennington, B. F. (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1336–1346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Winsler, A. (1998). Parent-child interactions and private speech in boys with ADHD. Applied Developmental Science, 2, 17–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson tests III of achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.Google Scholar
  98. Woodward, L., Taylor, E., & Dowdney, L. (1998). The parenting and family functioning of children with hyperactivity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 161–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria A. Rogers
    • 1
    Email author
  • Judith Wiener
    • 2
  • Imola Marton
    • 3
  • Rosemary Tannock
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Neurosciences and Mental Health Research ProgramThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Human Development and Applied PsychologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of Psychological ServicesToronto District School BoardTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Neurosciences and Mental Health Research ProgramThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations