Cancer Microenvironment

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 361–375 | Cite as

Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment in Cervical Cancer Patients

Article

Abstract

Cervical cancer is caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) in virtually all cases. These HPV-induced cancers express the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 and are therefore potentially recognized by the immune system. Despite the abundant presence of these foreign antigens, the immune system is unable to cope with the tumor. Due to the constant immunological pressure, cervical cancers can evolve different immune evasion strategies, which will be described in the current review. Several approaches for immunotherapy of cervical cancer are currently under development, which aim at inducing strong HPV-specific immunity. Besides the reinforcement of potent anti-tumor immune responses, immunotherapy could also enhance HPV-specific T regulatory cells. Supplementary strategies that neutralize an immunosuppressive milieu may have great potential. These strategies are discussed as well.

Keywords

Cervical Cancer Human papilloma virus Immune response Immune evasion T regulatory cell 

Abbreviations

HPV

Human papilloma virus

LSIL

Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

HSIL

High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

IFNγ

Interferon γ

IL-5

Interleukin 5

CxCa

Cervical cancer

CTL

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte

NK cell

Natural killer cell

cFLIP

FLICE-inhibitory protein

IDO

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

VEGF

Vascuar endotheial growth factor

TGFβ

Tumor growth factor β

Tregs

Regulatory T cells

IRF

Interferon regulatory factor

TAM

Tumor-associated macrophage

DC

Dedritic cell

MDSC

Myeloid derived suppressor cells

PD1

Programmed death 1

APC

Antigen presenting cell

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical MicrobiologyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtthe Netherlands

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