Facies control on selective dolomitization and its impact on reservoir heterogeneities in the Samana Suk Formation (middle Jurassic), Southern Hazara Basin (NW Himalaya, Pakistan): an outcrop analogue

  • Mumtaz M. ShahEmail author
  • Hamad U. Rahim
  • Aosaf Hassan
  • Muhammad R. Mustafa
  • Imran Ahmad


This studied rocks form part of the southern Hazara basin in the NW Himalayan Fold and Thrust belt, Pakistan. Thick inner to mid ramp carbonate platform deposits of Samana Suk Formation (Bajocian-Callovian) mostly composed of medium to thick bedded limestone with occasional dolostone beds are exposed in various localities. In the present studies, attempt has been made to understand degree of diagenetic alterations (i.e., dolomitization) within various limestone facies due to fluid-rock interaction phenomenon, and its impact on the reservoir behavior of altered rocks based on field investigations, petrographic studies, stable isotope signatures and porosity/permeability analysis. Field observations revealed various limestone types (oolitic, burrowed, fossiliferous, micritic and sandy), whereas dolomite occurs as completely replacive phase (Dol-I), and partially replacive patchy bodies (Dol-II) respectively. Petrographic studies showed various limestone and dolomite facies, which include: (i) Grainstone facies (bioclastic grainstone, peloidal grainstone, ooidal grainstone and pel-bioclastic grainstone), (ii) Packstone facies (bioclastic packstone and peloidal packstone), (iii) Wackestone facies (bioclastic wackestone), (iv) Mudstone facies (lime mudstone, and (v) Dolomite facies (coarse crystalline strata-bound Dol-I, and fine crystalline patchy Dol-II) respectively. O/C isotope analysis revealed that Dol-I shows signatures of δ18O (−5.84 to −3.91‰ V-PDB), and δ13C (+0.6 to +2.37‰ V-PDB) are within the limit of the carbonate marine seawater signatures, hence originated from sea-water or modified sea-water, whereas Dol-II exhibited depleted δ18O values (−6.88 to −5.87‰ V-PDB) and slightly depleted δ13C signatures (+0.968 to +1.85‰ V-PDB), indicating high temperature dolomitizing fluids. During early stage of marine diagenesis, which resulted in the cementation of pores within the grainstone-packstone facies, whereas mudstone-wackestone facies remained unaltered due to low porosity and permeability. Late stage dolomitization caused partial to complete alteration of mudstone-wackestone facies, in contrast grainstone-packstone facies are not affected by dolomitizing fluids due to the fact that the pore network of these coarser facies had already been occluded by the preceding marine cementation event. Porosity and permeability analyses revealed relatively high porosity values (4–8%) and permeability values (11.5 mD) in the dolomitized facies, whereas unaltered limestone facies showed considerably low porosity/permeability values (> 1%). In conclusion, less porous/permeable fine-grained facies evolved into more porous and permeable units due to the interaction of dolomitizing fluids of hydrothermal origin, which confirms that the original sedimentary texture of rock has implications on the selectivity of any diagenetic alteration.

Key words

selective dolomitization Samana Suk Formation microfacies reservoir characterization 



The authors are highly indebted to Geology & Reservoir Labs, Oil and Gas Development Company Limited for porosity permeability analysis. In addition, we are thankful to Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University Krakow for cathodoluminescence microscopy.


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Copyright information

© The Association of Korean Geoscience Societies and Springer 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mumtaz M. Shah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hamad U. Rahim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aosaf Hassan
    • 3
  • Muhammad R. Mustafa
    • 4
  • Imran Ahmad
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Earth Sciences DivisionPakistan Museum of Natural HistoryIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Oil & Gas Development Company LimitedIslamabadPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi PETRONASBandar Seri Iskandar PerakMalaysia
  5. 5.Department of GeologyUniversity of Malakand, Chakdara (Dir Lower)Khyber PakhtunkhwaPakistan

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