Dynamic processes of hyporheic exchange and temperature distribution in the riparian zone in response to dam-induced water fluctuations
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We examined the dynamic processes of hyporheic exchange and temperature distribution in a riparian zone in response to low-temperature water fluctuations downstream of the Xin’an River Dam, China, using analytical and mainly hydrodynamic methods. For this purpose, we installed six HM21 piezometers (R, P1–P5) between the river water and the groundwater at an interval of approximately 2 m perpendicular to the flow path. We also installed 20 PT100 thermistors (T1–T20) along the transect at depths of 1.19 m to 3.58 m and monitored the temperatures of river and air. Water levels and temperatures were automatically logged every 5 min by the real-time system from November to December 2014 and sent to the remote platform through the remote terminal unit. Results revealed that the intensity and direction of the hyporheic exchange (Q) between the river water and the groundwater varied periodically (t = 1 d) with the water level of the river. In each cycle, the Q was in a counterclockwise loop curve with the water level of the river and with the non-uniform distribution along the transect perpendicular to the river, which showed that the farther the lateral exchange was away from the river, the lower its intensity and the more hysteretic the alteration of its direction. The daily exchange width and residence time had no necessary connection with the average river stage, but mainly depended on the amplitude of the fluctuating river stage and the duration of river infiltration and established a strong linear relationship with their product. The temperature distribution of the riparian aquifer was mainly affected by the surface radiation and river water infiltration. It was characterized as “cool on the surface and warm at the bottom” in the vertical direction and could be divided into low-, medium-, and high-temperature zones along the horizontal direction. The horizontal infiltration distance (L) increased by power functions with the increase in infiltration rate (v) and decrease in river temperature (T).
Key wordsdam-induced water fluctuations riparian zone hyporheic exchange temperature distribution dynamic processes
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