Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 1469–1482 | Cite as

Characterization of Brassica napus responses to diluted and undiluted industrial wastewater

  • Shokoofeh HajihashemiEmail author
  • Fariba Noedoost
  • Fariba Hedayatzadeh
Research Article


Rising water scarcity, together with increased industrial wastewater production, suggests reusing of wastewater for plant irrigation. The wastewater from Razi petrochemical complex contained different salts and heavy metals. Variation in Brassica napus responses to wastewater irrigation has recommended appropriate levels of mineral nutrients in diluted wastewater that stimulated plant growth, and toxic levels of salts in undiluted wastewater that restricted plant growth. The undiluted wastewater irrigation significantly decreased chlorophyll fluorescence, along with photosynthetic capacity, while wastewater dilution mitigated its adverse effect. High levels of salts in undiluted wastewater induced an imbalance in plant mineral nutrients, which was evidenced with increased lipid peroxidation and reduced plant growth. On the contrary to adverse effects of undiluted wastewater on plant performance, the diluted wastewater, especially at 50% level, behaved as a fertilizer which increased leaf mineral nutrients, photosynthetic capacity, morphological and anatomical features of plant, but decreased lipid peroxidation. In relation to improvement in photosynthetic capacity, a significant increase was achieved in stomatal traits in plants irrigated with half-strength wastewater. In conclusion, due to the nutrition values of wastewater, it can be suggested to irrigate plants with diluted wastewater with the aim of improving crop productivity and saving freshwater sources.


Anatomy Nutrients Photosynthesis Pollutants Wastewater 



This research did not receive any specific grants from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12298_2019_717_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 13 kb)
12298_2019_717_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (124 kb)
Fig. 1S The correlation between (a) maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) with performance indices (PIABS), (b) net photosynthesis (PN) with Fv/Fm, (c) PN with PIABS, (d) PN with WUE, (e) PN with intercellular CO2 (Ci) and (f) PN with humidity (JPEG 123 kb)
12298_2019_717_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (78 kb)
Fig. 2S The correlation between (a) PN with water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), (b) chlorophyl total (Chl total) with WSC, (c) PN with MDA, (d) PN with WUE, (e) PN with malondialdehyde (MDA) and (f) WSC with MDA (JPEG 77 kb)
12298_2019_717_MOESM4_ESM.jpg (91 kb)
Fig. 3S The correlation between (a) PN with plant height, (b)) PN with leaf area, (c) PN with leaf fresh mass and (d) PN with leaf dry mass (JPEG 91 kb)
12298_2019_717_MOESM5_ESM.jpg (40 kb)
Fig. 4S The correlation between (a) leaf area with WSC and (b) leaf dry mass with WSC (JPEG 40 kb)
12298_2019_717_MOESM6_ESM.jpg (285 kb)
Fig. 5S Micrograph of stem cross section in Brassica napus irrigated with different concentrations of wastewater (0 (control), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (undiluted)). CP, cortical parenchyma; E, epiderma; X: xylematic vessel (JPEG 285 kb)
12298_2019_717_MOESM7_ESM.jpg (902 kb)
Fig. 6S Micrograph of root cross section in Brassica napus irrigated with different concentrations of wastewater (0 (control), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (undiluted)). CP, cortical parenchyma; VC, vascular cylinder (JPEG 901 kb)
12298_2019_717_MOESM8_ESM.jpg (475 kb)
Fig. 7S Micrograph of leaf cross section in Brassica napus irrigated with different concentrations of wastewater (0 (control), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (undiluted)). E, epiderma; M, mesophyll, Sc, sclerenchyma X, xylematic vessel (JPEG 475 kb)
12298_2019_717_MOESM9_ESM.jpg (1 mb)
Fig. 8S Micrograph of stomata in Brassica napus irrigated with different concentrations of wastewater (0 (control), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (undiluted)) (JPEG 1031 kb)


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Copyright information

© Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shokoofeh Hajihashemi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fariba Noedoost
    • 1
  • Fariba Hedayatzadeh
    • 2
  1. 1.Plant Biology Department, Faculty of ScienceBehbahan Khatam Alanbia University of TechnologyKhuzestanIran
  2. 2.Environmental Science DepartmentFaculty of Natural Resources and EnvironmentMalayerIran

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