Advertisement

Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 159–166 | Cite as

Induction of powdery mildew resistance in gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) through gamma irradiation

  • Minerva GhaniEmail author
  • Surinder Kumar Sharma
Research Article
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation in inducing resistance/tolerance towards powdery mildew disease was investigated in Gerbera jamesonii cv. ‘Harley’. In vitro shoot cultures were established through capitulum explants on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 22.2 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 2.53 µM indole acetic acid (IAA), followed by gamma irradiation of regenerated shoots (3–5 cm). Activity of four antioxidant enzymes i.e. superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase increased significantly as compared to the control and reached to highest level at the most stringent doses of mutagen. Ninety randomly selected irradiated plants (6 months old) and 100 control plants were inoculated with fungal conidial suspension, to screen for tolerance/resistance against powdery mildew. The severity of the disease was recorded on 0–4 scale with ‘0’ indicating highly resistant; ‘1’ indicating resistant; ‘2’ indicating medium resistance; ‘3’ indicating susceptible and ‘4’ indicating highly susceptible. Three plants (3.33%) irradiated with 5 Gy were found to be tolerant to powdery mildew as these plants showed slight and delayed development of fungal colonies on the leaves. The random amplified polymorphic DNA characterization showed that the irradiated plants had DNA patterns that were different from the control and mother plants.

Keywords

Antioxidant enzymes Gamma rays Gerbera Mutation Fungal resistance RAPD markers 

References

  1. Abou Dahab AM, Heikal AAM, Taha LS, Gabr AMM, Metwally SA, Ali AAR (2017) In vitro mutagenesis induction in Eustoma grandiflorumplant using gamma radiation. J Env Sci Tech 4(10):175–185Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad Z, Hassan AA, Idris NA, Basiran MN, Tanaka A et al (2006) Effects of ion beam irradiation on Oncidium lancearum orchids. J Nucl Res Technol 3:1–8.Google Scholar
  3. Ali A, Naz S, Alam SS, Iqbal J (2007) In vitro induced mutation for screening of red rot (Colletotrichum falcatum) resistance in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). Pak J Bot 39:1979–1994Google Scholar
  4. Altaf N, Khan AR, Ali L, Bhatti IA (2009) Tissue culture of gerbera. Pak J Bot 41:7–10Google Scholar
  5. Badr M, El-Torky MG, Abbas R, El-Mezawy A, Gaber G (2006) Breeding studies on Salvia sp. II. Biochemical and biotechnological identification of some Salvia genotypes. Alex J Agric Res 51:169–176Google Scholar
  6. Barakat MN, Fattah RSA, Badr M, Torky MG (2010) In vitro mutagenesis and identification of new variants via RAPD markers for improving Chrysanthemum morifolium. Afr J Agric Res 5:748–757.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR09.679 Google Scholar
  7. Bhargava B, Dilta BS, Gupta YC, Dhiman SR, Modgil M (2013) Studies on micropropagation of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus). Indian J Appl Res 3(11):8–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhatia R, Singh KP, Jhang T, Sharma TR (2009) Assessment of clonal fidelity of micropropagated gerbera by ISSR markers. Sci Hortic Amst 119:208–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.07.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhatia R, Singh KP, Sharma TR, Jhang T (2011) Evaluation of genetic fidelity of in vitro propagated gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) using DNA based markers. Plant Cell Tiss Org 104:131–135.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-010-9806-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhoyer M, Misra GP, Gyan P, Srivastava RB (2011) Estimation of antioxidant activity and total phenolics among natural population of Caper (Capparis spinosa) leaves collected from cold arid desert of trans-Himalayas. Aust J Crop Sci 5:912–919Google Scholar
  11. Chakrabarty D, Datta SK (2008) Micropropagation in gerbera: lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities during acclimatization process. Acta physiol Plant 30:325–331.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-007-0125-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dehgahi R, Joniyasa A (2017) Gamma irradiation induced variation in Dendrobium ‘Sonia-28’ orchid protocorm like bodies (PLBS). Fungal Genom Biol 7:151.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2165-8056.1000151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghani M, Kumar S, Thakur M (2014) Physiological and biochemical responses of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Hook.) to physical and chemical mutagenesis. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 89(3):301–306.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2014.11513083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gullino ML, Wardlow LR (1999) Ornamentals. In: Albajes R, Gullino ML, van Lenteren JC, Elad Y (eds) Integrated pest and disease management in greenhouse crops. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 486–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Helaly MNM, Hanan El-Hosieny AMH (2011) Effectiveness of gamma irradiated protoplasts on improving salt tolerance of lemon (Citrus limon L. Burn. F.). Am J Plant Physiol 6:126–143.  https://doi.org/10.3923/ajpp.2011.190.208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hussein GM, Ismail IA, Hashem MES, Miniawy SME, Abdallah NA (2008) In vitro regeneration of gerbera. Landbauforsch Volkenr 58(1):97–102Google Scholar
  17. Jain SM (2010) In vitro mutagenesis in banana (Musa spp.) improvement. Acta Hortic 879:605–614.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.879.67 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jain SM (2012) In vitro mutagenesis for improving date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Emir J Food Agric 24(5):400–407Google Scholar
  19. Jain SM, Suprasanna P (2011) Induced mutation for enhancing nutrition and food production. Gene Conserve 40:201–215Google Scholar
  20. Kaul A, Kumar S, Ghani M (2011) In vitro mutagenesis and detection of variability among radio mutants of chrysanthemum using RAPD. Adv Hortic Sci 25:106–111.  https://doi.org/10.13128/ahs-12775 Google Scholar
  21. Kharkwal MC, Shu QY (2009) The role of induced mutations in world food security. In: Shu GY (ed) Induced plant mutations in the genomics era. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 33–38Google Scholar
  22. Kitao Y, Doazan JP (1990) Grapevine breeding for resistance to powdery mildew: bioassay system for evaluation of plant resistance and characterization of different Uncinula necator strains. In: Proceedings of 5th international symposium on grape breeding, 12–16, Sep 1989, St. Martin-Pfalz, Germany, pp 249–253Google Scholar
  23. Kumar B, Kumar S, Thakur M (2012) In vitro mutation induction and selection of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzelev) lines with improved resistance to Septoria obesa Syd. Int J Plant Sci 2:103–107.  https://doi.org/10.5923/j.plant.20120204.01 Google Scholar
  24. Lee DH, Lee CB (2000) Chilling stress-induced changes of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of cucumber: in gel enzyme activity assays. Plant Sci 159:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu S, Wang H, Zhang J, Fitt BD, Xu Z, Evans N, Liu Y, Yang W, Guo X (2005) In vitro mutation and selection of double-haploid Brassica napus lines with improved resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Cell Rep 24:133–144.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-005-0925-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lu G, Zhang X, Zou Y, Zou Q, Xiang X and Cao J (2007) Effect of radiation on regeneration of Chineses narcissus and analysis of genetic variation with AFLP and RAPD markers. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Cult 88:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Manish B, Gyan M, Pradeep N, Srivastava R (2011) Estimation of antioxidant activity and total phenolics among natural population of Caper (Capparis spinosa) leaves collected from cold arid desert of trans-Himalayas. Aust J Crop Sci 5:912–919Google Scholar
  28. Minisi FA, El-Mahrouk ME, El-Din FRM, Nasr MN (2013) Effect of gamma irradiation on germination, growth characteristics and morphological variations of Molucella laevis L. Am Eur J Agric Enviorn Sci 13:696–704.  https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2013.13.05.1956 Google Scholar
  29. Mohammadian MA, Largani ZK, Sajedi RH (2012) Quantitative and qualitative comparison of antioxidant activity in the flavedo tissue of three cultivars of citrus fruit under cold stress. Aust J Crop Sci 6:402–406Google Scholar
  30. Moyer C, Peres NA (2008) Evaluation of biofungicides for control of powdery mildew of Gerbera daisy. Proc Fla State Hortic Soc 121:389–394Google Scholar
  31. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–479.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2013.11513010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Murashige T, Sepra M, Jones JB (1974) Clonal multiplication of gerbera through tissue culture. Hortic Sci 9:175–180Google Scholar
  33. Ramchandarn N, Sujatha K, Rathnamma K (2004) Foliar nutrition with potassium phosphate to control powdery mildew in gerbera. J Ornam Hortic 7:64–69.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07060669809500391 Google Scholar
  34. Shin JM, Kim BK, Seo SG, Jeon SB, Kim JS, Jun BK, Kang SY, Lee JS, Chung MN, Kim SH (2011) Mutation breeding of sweet potato by gamma ray radiation. Afr J Agric Res 66:1447–1454Google Scholar
  35. Sianipar NF, Ariandana MW (2015) Detection of gamma irradiation mutant of rodent tuber (Typhorium flagelliforme Lodd.) in vitro culture by RAPD molecular marker. Proc Chem 14:285–294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proche.2015.03.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sudhakar C, Lakshmi A, Giridara KS (2001) Changes in the antioxidant enzyme efficacy in two high yielding genotypes of mulberry (Morus alba L.) under NaCl salinity. Plant Sci 161:613–619.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00450 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tanaka K, Saji H, Kondo N (1988) Immunological properties of spinach glutathione reductase and inductive biosynthesis of the enzymes with ozone. Plant Cell Physiol 29(4):637–642.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a077540 Google Scholar
  38. Tarroum M, Khan S, Al-Qurainy F (2011) Evaluation of drought tolerance of gamma irradiated mutants of Hordeum vulgare. J Med Plants Res 5:2969–2997.  https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.609.077 Google Scholar
  39. Terri TH, Elomaa P, Kotilainen M, Albert VA (2006) Mining plant diversity: Gerbera as a model system for plant development and biosynthetic research. BioEssays 28:756–767.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.20439 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Varshney A, Anis M (2011) Improvement of shoot morphogenesis in vitro and assessment of changes of the activity of antioxidant enzymes during acclimation of micropropagated plants of Desert Teak. Acta Physiol Plant 34:859–867.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-011-0883-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Virscek-Marn M, Bohanec B, Javornik B (1999) Adventitious shoot regeneration from apple leaves—optimization of protocol and assessment of genetic variation among regenerants. Phyton 39(1):61–70Google Scholar
  42. Warar MH, Kulkarni BS, Jagadeesha RC, Reddy BS (2008) Effect of cytokinin with auxins on proliferation of multiple shoots in gerbera (G. jamesonii Bolus) var. ‘Sciella’. Karnataka J Agric Sci 21(4):597–599Google Scholar
  43. Wayne FB, Irwin F (1987) Assaying superoxide dismutase activity: some large consequences of minor changes in the conditions. Anal Biochem 161:559–566.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0003/2697(87)90489-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyGovernment Degree CollegeAnantnagIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyDr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture Science and TechnologyNauni-SolanIndia

Personalised recommendations