Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 503–511 | Cite as

Agroinfiltration: a rapid and reliable method to select suitable rose cultivars for blue flower production

  • Masoume Zeinipour
  • Pejman AzadiEmail author
  • Ahmad Majd
  • Maryam Jafarkhani Kermani
  • Saeed Irian
  • Seyed Mohammad Hosseini
  • Masahiro Mii
Research Article


Rose cultivars with blue flower color are among the most attractive breeding targets in floriculture. However, they are difficult to produce due to the low efficiency of transformation systems, interactive effects of hosts and vectors, and lengthy processes. In this study, agroinfiltration-mediated transient expression was investigated as a tool to assess the function of flower color genes and to determine appropriate host cultivars for stable transformation in Rosa hybrida. To induce delphinidin accumulation and consequently to produce blue hue, the petals of 30 rose cultivars were infiltrated with three different expression vectors namely pBIH-35S-CcF3′5′H, pBIH-35S-Del2 and pBIH-35S-Del8, harbouring different sets of flower color genes. The results obtained showed that the ectopic expression of the genes was only detected in three cultivars with dark pink petals (i.e. ‘Purple power’, ‘High & Mora’ and ‘Marina’) after 6–8 days. The high performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed delphinidin accumulation in the infiltrated petals caused by transient expression of CcF3′5′H gene. Moreover, there were significant differences in the amounts of delphinidin among the three cultivars infiltrated with the three different expression vectors. More specifically, the highest delphinidin content was detected in the cultivar ‘Purple power’ (4.67 µg g−1 FW), infiltrated with the pBIH-35S-Del2 vector. The expression of CcF3′5′H gene in the infiltrated petals was also confirmed by real time PCR. In conclusion and based on the findings of the present study, the agroinfiltration could be regarded as a reliable method to identify suitable rose cultivars in blue rose flower production programs.


Agroinfiltration Delphinidin Expression vectors Cultivar Rosa hybrida 



This work was supported by Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII). M Zeini Pour did the project as part of her PhD thesis.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masoume Zeinipour
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pejman Azadi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmad Majd
    • 2
  • Maryam Jafarkhani Kermani
    • 1
  • Saeed Irian
    • 2
  • Seyed Mohammad Hosseini
    • 1
  • Masahiro Mii
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Genetic Engineering, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII)Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)KarajIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Biology ScienceKharazmi UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Laboratory of Plant Cell Technology, Graduate School of HorticultureChiba UniversityMatsudoJapan

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