Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 421–432 | Cite as

Sulfur nutrition level modifies the growth, micronutrient status, and cadmium distribution in cadmium-exposed spring wheat

  • Renata Matraszek-Gawron
  • Barbara Hawrylak-NowakEmail author
Research Article


The effect of S nutrition level (standard—2 and intensive—6 or 9 mmol S L−1) on the growth, micronutrient status, and Cd concentration of Cd-exposed (0, 0.0002, 0.02, and 0.04 mmol Cd L−1) Triticum aestivum L. ‘Zebra’ was examined. The hypothesis that Cd-induced micronutrient imbalance in this species is alleviated by enhanced S-sulfate (S-SO4) nutrition was tested. The intensive S nutrition, especially the dose of 6 mmol L−1, to some extent alleviated Cd-induced stress by improving the adverse changes in micronutrient status and increase of the biomass. The root and shoot Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn concentrations of Cd-exposed wheat rose at 6 and remained unaltered at 9 mmol S L−1. Particularly noteworthy is the substantial increase of Fe bioconcentration found in Cd-stressed plants at 6 mmol S L−1. The root Cu concentration increased at 6 and decreased at 9 mmol S L−1, but did not change in shoots. Simultaneously, both the high S levels elevated the shoot Cl concentration but had no effect on the root Cl concentration. There were no substantial changes in the Mo concentration. The intensive S nutrition of the Cd-treated wheat did not affect the translocation factor (TF) of Fe and B. In turn, root-to-shoot translocation of Mo and Zn was enhanced at 6 and remained unchanged at 9 mmol S L−1. The changes in TF of Cl, Cu, and Mn varied greatly, depending on the S and Cd concentrations. Intensive S nutrition of Cd-stressed wheat, as a rule, dropped the root and increased the shoot Cd concentration as well as reduced Cd bioconcentration/bioaccumulation factor enhancing root-to-shoot Cd translocation.


Cd phytotoxicity Micronutrients Translocation factor (TF) Bioconcentration/bioaccumulation factor (BCF/BAF) Sulfur nutrition Triticum aestivum



This research was financially supported by the statutory funds from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (OKA/DS/3, Department of Plant Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin).

Author contribution

RM-G, main author designed and coordinated the research, contributed in the conducting of the experiment, collection and statistical analysis of data, results interpretation as well as writing, revision and compilation of the manuscript. BH-N participated in the laboratory work, data collection and interpretation, discussion as well as drafting manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PhysiologyUniversity of Life Sciences in LublinLublinPoland

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