Memetic Computing

, 1:175 | Cite as

Lamarckian memetic algorithms: local optimum and connectivity structure analysis

  • Minh Nghia Le
  • Yew-Soon Ong
  • Yaochu Jin
  • Bernhard Sendhoff
Regular Research Paper


Memetic algorithms (MAs) represent an emerging field that has attracted increasing research interest in recent times. Despite the popularity of the field, we remain to know rather little of the search mechanisms of MAs. Given the limited progress made on revealing the intrinsic properties of some commonly used complex benchmark problems and working mechanisms of Lamarckian memetic algorithms in general non-linear programming, we introduce in this work for the first time the concepts of local optimum structure and generalize the notion of neighborhood to connectivity structure for analysis of MAs. Based on the two proposed concepts, we analyze the solution quality and computational efficiency of the core search operators in Lamarckian memetic algorithms. Subsequently, the structure of local optimums of a few representative and complex benchmark problems is studied to reveal the effects of individual learning on fitness landscape and to gain clues into the success or failure of MAs. The connectivity structure of local optimum for different memes or individual learning procedures in Lamarckian MAs on the benchmark problems is also investigated to understand the effects of choice of memes in MA design.


Memetic algorithms Lamarckian evolution Search dynamics Fitness distance correlation Experimental analysis Numerical optimization 


f (x)

Objective or fitness function


Global optimum


ith element of vector x


Conditional probability density function of having offspring y given parent x at generation t

d(x, y)

Euclidean distance \({\|{\bf x}-{\bf y}\|=\sqrt{\sum_{i=1}^{n}{(x_i - y_i)^2}}}\) between x and y


A set of local optimums


Basin of attraction of local optimum v


Probability of converging to local optimum v from x by means of individual learning

T (x, y)

Probability of converging to local optimum y from x by means of reproduction and individual learning

C(x′, x′′)

Computational effort incurred to arrive at x′′ from x′ by means of individual learning


Expectation of a measure conditioned to population P


Maximum computational effort required to converge to local optimum starting from any point within the basin of attraction B v


Number of dimensions


Population size


Selection operator


Reproduction operator

I L(.)

Individual learning operator


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minh Nghia Le
    • 1
  • Yew-Soon Ong
    • 1
  • Yaochu Jin
    • 2
  • Bernhard Sendhoff
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Computational Intelligence, Division of Information System, School of Computer EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Honda Research Institute Europe GmbHOffenbach/MainGermany

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