Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 242–245 | Cite as

Effect of Sodium Chloride on Efficiency of Cisplatinum Dissolved in Dimethyl Sulfoxide: An In Vitro Study

  • Seyed Kazem Bagherpour Doun
  • Sohrab Halal Khor
  • Dardi Qujeq
  • Hasan Ebrahimi Shahmabadi
  • Seyed Ebrahim Alavi
  • Fatemeh Movahedi
  • Azim Akbarzadeh
Original Article


Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt’s solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt’s solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt’s stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9 %. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMSO on cytotoxicity of Cispt in presence of sodium. MTT assay was employed to study cytotoxicity effect of Cispt + NaCl + DMSO and Cispt + DMSO on G-292 cell line. Cytotoxicity in dilutions of 300 and 9 (p < 0.01) of Cispt in Cispt + NaCl + DMSO formulation was equal to 78 and 7 %. These values were estimated 79 and 18 % for Cispt + DMSO formulation and 79 and 24 % for free drug. IC50 values demonstrated reduction of 45 % in cytotoxicity of Cispt in Cispt + DMSO formulation. Studying chemical structure of Cispt and Cispt dissolved in DMSO showed that NaCl cannot inhibit inactivating effect of DMSO on Cispt and effect of this solvent on Cispt is independent from presence of NaCl. Results represented that using NaCl does not result in stability and keeping cytotoxicity properties of Cispt in DMSO. Findings suggest more studies for using DMSO as a solvent of Cispt.


Dimethyl sulfoxide Sodium chloride Cisplatinum Cytotoxicity 



This work was carried out as a part of Master’s thesis in nanobiotechnology pilot unit of Pasteur Institute of Iran and it would be necessary to thank all colleagues.


  1. 1.
    Mansour HH, Hafez HF, Fahmy NM. Silymarin modulates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;39:656–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Basu A, Krishnamurthy S. Cellular responses to cisplatin-induced DNA damage. J Nucleic Acids. 2010;. doi: 10.4061/2011/201367.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parker AR, Petluru PN, Wu M, Zhao M, Kochat H, Hausheer FH. BNP7787-mediated modulation of paclitaxel- and cisplatin-induced aberrant microtubule protein polymerization in vitro. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:2558–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Amptoulach S, Tsavaris N. Neurotoxicity caused by the treatment with platinum analogues. Chemother Res Pract. 2011;2011:843019.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goyal N, Sharma SK. Effects of Pluchea lanceolata root extract on cisplatin induced nausea and vomiting in rat pica model. Iran J Pharmacol Ther. 2013;12:19–23.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Astolfi L, Ghiselli S, Guaran V, Chicca M, Simoni E, Olivetto E, et al. Correlation of adverse effects of cisplatin administration in patients affected by solid tumors: a retrospective evaluation. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:1285–92.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wong E, Giandomenico CM. Current status of platinum-based antitumor drugs. Chem Rev. 1999;99:2451–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maynard RL. The Merck index. 12th ed. Bethesda: PubMed Central; 1996. p. 2378.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Uribe PM, Mueller MA, Gleichman JS, Kramer MD, Wang Q, Sibrian-Vazquez M, Strongin RM, Steyger PS, Cotanche DA, Matsui JI. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) exacerbates cisplatin-induced sensory hair cell death in zebrafish (Danio rerio). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55359.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fischer SJ, Benson LM, Fauq A, Naylor S, Windebank AJ. Cisplatin and dimethyl sulfoxide react to form an adducted compound with reduced cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:444–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pujol Cubells M, Prat Aixela J, Girona Brumos V, Duran Pou S, Villaronga Flaque M. Stability of cisplatin in sodium chloride 0.9 % intravenous solution related to the container’s material. Pharm World Sci. 1993;15:34–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tan ML, Choong PF, Dass CR. Direct anti-metastatic efficacy by the DNA enzyme Dz13 and downregulated MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP in tumours. Cancer Cell Int. 2010;10:9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zarei M, Norouzian D, Chiani M, Ebrahimi H, Mohammadi M, Akbarzadeh A. Advantages of paclitaxel-loaded nanoniosomes to nanoliposomal formulation: an in vitro study. Int J Life Sci Biotechnol Pharma Res. 2013;2:335–42.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Abedini MR, Qiu Q, Yan X, Tsang BK. Possible role of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP) in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Oncogene. 2004;23:6997–7004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Axanova L, Morré DJ, Morré DM. Growth of LNCaP cells in monoculture and coculture with osteoblasts and response to tNOX inhibitors. Cancer Lett. 2005;225:35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stern ST, Potter TM. LLC-PK1 kidney apoptosis assay. Nanotechnol Charact Lab. 2005;1:1–8.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Feng L, De Dille A, Jameson VJ, Smith L, Dernell WS, Manning MC. Improved potency of cisplatin by hydrophobic ion pairing. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2004;54:441–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fischer SJ, Benson LM, Fauq A, Naylor S, Windebank AJ. Cisplatin and dimethyl sulfoxide react to form an adducted compound with reduced cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:444–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hanigan MH, Deng M, Zhang L, Taylor PT Jr, Lapus MG. Stress response inhibits the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;288:F125–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prough DS, Bidani A. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a predictable consequence of intraoperative infusion of 0.9 % saline. Anesthesiology. 1999;90:1247–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Clinical Biochemists of India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyed Kazem Bagherpour Doun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sohrab Halal Khor
    • 1
  • Dardi Qujeq
    • 1
  • Hasan Ebrahimi Shahmabadi
    • 2
  • Seyed Ebrahim Alavi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fatemeh Movahedi
    • 2
    • 4
  • Azim Akbarzadeh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and BiophysicsBabol University of Medical ScienceBabolIran
  2. 2.Pilot Nanobiotechnology DepartmentPasteur Institute of IranTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringScience and Research Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Iran University of Science and TechnologyNarmak, TehranIran

Personalised recommendations