Diagnosis of Major Organic Acidurias in Children: Two Years Experience at a Tertiary Care Centre
Organic acid disorders are inherited metabolic disorders in which organic acids accumulate in tissues and biological fluids of affected individuals. Classical organic acidurias include methylmalonic aciduria, propionic aciduria, isovaleric aciduria and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). They are considered the most frequent metabolic disorders among severely ill children. Patients frequently present with acute symptoms early in life. 420 cases clinically suspected to have organic aciduria, with upper age limit of 12 years for a 2-year period (January 2007–December 2008) were enrolled into this study. Metabolic acidosis and neurological symptoms were the most common signs. Screening tests and thin layer chromatography were done for detection of organic acidurias. Identification and quantitation of organic acids in urine and quantification of amino acids in blood were done by high performance liquid chromatography. Out of 420 patients, 45 patients (10.7%) were found to have organic acidurias. 15 cases of methylmalonic aciduria, 16 cases of propionic aciduria, 13 cases of MSUD, and one case of isovaleric aciduria were diagnosed. Results demonstrate the importance of testing for organic acidurias. Since organic aciduria may cause irreversible brain damage if not treated, we recommend selective screening amongst severely ill children despite implied extra costs.
KeywordsInborn errors of metabolism Metabolic screening Organic acidemias Organic acids Organic acid disorders
NMP is Senior Research Fellow of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Financial assistance received from Kerala state Council for Science, Technology and Environment (KSCSTE), Government of Kerala, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Government of India is gratefully acknowledged.
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