Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Inhibitors: Correlation with Invasion and Metastasis in Oral Cancer
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in invasion and metastasis of various malignancies. The study evaluated a comprehensive profile of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), respectively in 50 controls and 75 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Blood samples from controls and patients as well as malignant and adjacent normal tissues from the patients were collected. The study examined pro, active and total forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 using zymography. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were carried out to evaluate protein levels and mRNA expression; respectively, for the MMPs and TIMPs. Plasma pro, active and total MMP-2, MMP-9 as well as TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly higher in oral cancer patients as compared to the controls. mRNA expression of the MMPs and TIMPs was significantly higher in malignant tissues as compared to adjacent normal tissues. A significant positive correlation was observed between levels of proMMP-9 and active MMP-9 with differentiation, stage and infiltration. ProMMP-2 and active MMP-2 exhibited significant positive correlation with differentiation and lymph node involvement. The multivariate analysis of ELISA results revealed a significant positive correlation between MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels with lymph node involvement, stage and differentiation. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed that the levels of MMPs and TIMPs have significant discriminatory efficacy to differentiate between controls and patients. The results indicate that MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 have significant clinical usefulness for oral cancer patients. Zymographic analysis is a simple, cost effective, rapid and sensitive alternative assay.
KeywordsMMPs TIMPs Oral cancer Zymography Metastasis Invasion
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