European View

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 3–10 | Cite as

Convergence and diversity in political campaigning in Europe

  • Wojciech Gagatek


This review paper takes stock of the reasons for, and explanations of, convergence and diversity in political campaigning in Europe. Convergence is primarily related to growing homogenisation practices resulting from the Americanisation or globalisation of campaigning, in particular through the common use of new media. Diversity, in contrast, stems from differences in structural and contextual country-specific features, such as different electoral laws, media systems or political culture. The biggest gap that exists in this field of study, despite recent improvements, concerns insufficient attempts to quantify campaign practices that would allow better capture of the degree of either convergence or divergence.


Europe Political campaigning Political parties Professionalisation 


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Copyright information

© Centre for European Studies 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centrum EuropejskieUniwersytet WarszawskiWarsawPoland

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