European View

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 3–10 | Cite as

A new protest culture in Western Europe?



Given that the huge protest waves of 1968, the early 1980s and 1989–1990 can now be regarded as past history in European democracy, the question now is whether a new protest culture is emerging in Western Europe. New protest literature has reached the top of bestseller lists, giving some evidence of ‘citizens in anger’. The new face of protest today is influenced by political agendas in reaction to recent parliamentary and governmental actions. In fact, although confidence in legislatures and governments is decreasing, there is no general distrust of coherent polities within European national systems. European representative democracies may come under civic pressure in future unless some new means of significant participation are created.


Protest culture Western Europe Protest literature New protest tendencies Stuttgart 21 


  1. 1.
    Crouch C (2004) Post-democracy. Polity Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Comité invisible (2007) L’insurrection qui vient. La Fabrique Éditions, ParisGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Della Porta D, Peterson A, Reiter H (eds) (2006) The policing of transnational protest. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Easton D (1965) A framework for political analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fukuyama F (1992) The end of history and the last man. Free Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hardt M, Negri A (2000) Empire. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hessel SF (2010) Indignez-vous! Indigène, ParisGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kurbjuweit D (2010) Der Wutbürger. Der Spiegel, 41, 11 October, pp. 26–27Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rucht D (2002) The EU as a target of political mobilisation: is there a Europeanization of conflict? In: Balme R, Chabanet D (eds) L’action collective en Europe. Presses de Sciences Po, Paris, pp 110–137Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rucht D (2006) Political participation in Europe. In: Sakwa R, Stevens A (eds) Contemporary Europe. Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, pp 110–137Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rucht D (2010) Results of the interrogation of Stuttgart 21-demonstrators. Press conference paper, Wissenschaftszentrum Sozialforschung, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sarrazin T (2010) Deutschland schafft sich ab. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, MunichGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schmitter P et al (eds) (2007) The future of democracy in Europe. Wissenschaftszentrum Sozialforschung, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Teune S (2010) Protest in the transnational condition. In: Teune S (ed) The transnational condition: protest dynamics in an entangled Europe. Berghahn Books, New York, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wielenga F, Hartleb F (eds) (2011) Populismus in der modernen Demokratie: Die Niederlande und Deutschland im Vergleich. Waxmann Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Žižek S (2001) Have Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri rewritten the Communist Manifesto for the twenty-first century? Rethinking Marxism 13(2):190–198Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Centre for European Studies 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for European StudiesBrusselsEurope

Personalised recommendations