International Journal of Material Forming

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 117–126 | Cite as

Analysis of the bond strength of voids closed by open-die forging

  • Paul HibbeEmail author
  • Gerhard Hirt
Original Research


Large components, for instance in the energy industry, mining and heavy machinery, are produced from high weight cast as ingots followed by open-die forging. Besides achieving a certain final geometry and microstructure, one of the main objectives during the forging process is the elimination of casting defects, like voids from the solidification shrinkage. This process is divided in the two stages of void closure and void healing. During the healing of the closed void a solid bond is established at high temperature. In literature void closure in open die forging is thoroughly investigated. Concerning the healing by solid bond generation there are only few studies related to voids in open die forging but there is substantial literature related to bond formation in roll hot bonding and diffusion bonding. Most of this work however determines the bond strength after cooling to room temperature. Concerning future appropriate modelling of the closure and healing process in open die forging, it is important to decide, whether a bond, which was established in one forging stroke, would be strong enough to withstand the following strokes. As a first step in this direction, this paper experimentally examines the bond strength directly after bond formation under conditions typical for open die forging strokes. The results quantitatively confirm the expected influence of forming temperature, surface enlargement, holding time and oxide films.


Hot forming Open-die forging Void closure Bond formation Bond strength 



The author would like to thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG for the support of these works within the project HI790/53-1 “Kriterien zum Verschließen und Verschweißen von Poren beim Freiformschmieden”.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Metal Forming (IBF)RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

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