International Journal of Material Forming

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 67–76 | Cite as

Investigating the effects of cross wedge rolling preforming operation and die forging with flash brakes on forging titanium hip implants

  • Bernd-Arno Behrens
  • Malte Stonis
  • Thoms Blohm
  • Johannes Richter
Original Research


To reduce production costs of forged parts, different approaches are possible. Especially for valuable materials like titanium, material costs represent a large part of the production costs. Therefore, reducing the initial material can decrease the total costs significantly. In order to identify the potential for improvements, an existing forging sequence was investigated. For a titanium hip implant, a forging sequence was developed. To reduce the initially needed material, cross wedge rolling as a preforming operation and die forging with flash brakes was investigated. The influence of the different stages on the final result was analysed and presented in detail. To increase the prediction accuracy of the newly developed flash-reduced forging sequence and decrease iteration loops of die designs, feasible simulation parameters considering the boundary conditions of the forging environment were investigated. This is done using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), considering form filling, process stability, die stress and press forces. Using cross wedge rolling and die forging with flash brakes, the newly developed forging sequence reduces the flash rate significantly from 69% to 32%.


Cross wedge rolling Forging Flash-reduced Forging sequence development Finite element simulations Flash brakes 



The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme managed by REA-Research Executive Agency (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 606171 FP7-SME-2013-1.

Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme managed by REA-Research Executive Agency (FP7/2007–2013) (grant number 606,171 FP7-SME-2013-1).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd-Arno Behrens
    • 1
  • Malte Stonis
    • 2
  • Thoms Blohm
    • 2
  • Johannes Richter
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Metal Forming and Metal Forming Machines (IFUM)Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2GarbsenGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Integrierte Produktion gemeinnützige GmbH Hannover (IPH)HannoverGermany

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