Relationship Between Haemostasis Parameters and Anxiety Under Examination Stress: A Pilot Study
This work aims to clarify how blood coagulation parameters reflect mild stress response in males and females. Healthy student volunteers of both sexes were used in this pilot study. A new global sensitive assay of haemostasis, spatial thrombodynamics, along with conventional coagulometry approach were used to evaluate of blood coagulation parameters. Psychodiagnostics scales (according to Spielberger and Taylor) are employed to evaluate anxiety as stress-induced response. We have selected exam stress, which despite being a mild stressor may nevertheless cause somatic disorders. We provide the first evidence of a statistically significant increase in initial clot growth velocity in women, but not men, in response to exam stress. The exam situation produces higher situational anxiety in female volunteers, and so they express remarkable stress-induced haemostatic responses, including plasma- and platelet-based changes. In contrast, male volunteers do not express pronounced stress-induced changes in haemostasis, and only display a decrease in plateletcrit value and an increase in prothrombin time. Mild form of stress (exam) induces changes in some blood coagulation parameters. A statistically significant remarkable increase in Vinit value and some other plasma- and platelet-based parameters has been seen in female students (but not male ones) under exam stress.
KeywordsHaemostasis Blood coagulation Anxiety Gender Stress Thrombodynamics
The initial velocity of induced thrombosis
The steady velocity of induced thrombosis
The difference between the initial and steady velocity of induced thrombosis
International normalized ratio
Activated partial thromboplastin time
Absolute number of platelets
The average platelets’ volume
State-trait anxiety inventory
Teilor’s Manifest Anxiety Scale
The authors are grateful to Professor Dr. Fazly Ataullakhanov (Lomonosov Moscow State University and “HemaCore” Ltd) for the support with thrombodynamics studies and fruitful discussions. The work was supported and 2016-2018 Grant of Russian Institute of Advanced Study at the Moscow State Pedagogical University (to R.V.K.).
This work was funded by the subsidy allocated by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science, Grant # 19.9777.2017/8.9 to Kazan Federal University for the state assignment in the sphere of scientific activities.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards approved by the Local Ethics Committee of the Kazan State Medical University (6.21.06.18) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.von Känel R, Vökt F, Biasiutti FD, Stauber S, Wuillemin WA, Lukas PS (2012) Relation of psychological distress to the international normalized ratio in patients with venous thromboembolism with and without oral anticoagulant therapy. J Thromb Haemost 10(8):1547–1555. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2012.04801.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.Stämpfli SF, Camici GG, Keller S, Rozenberg I, Arras M, Schuler B, Gassmann M, Garcia I, Lüscher TF, Tanner FC (2014) Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo–role of the sympathetic nervous system. Stress 17(1):126–132. https://doi.org/10.3109/10253890.2013.862616 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Miller VM, Kaplan JR, Schork NJ, Ouyang P, Berga SL, Wenger NK, Shaw LJ, Webb RC, Mallampalli M, Steiner M, Taylor DA, Merz CN, Reckelhoff JF (2011) Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists. Biol Sex Differ 2:14. https://doi.org/10.1186/2042-6410-2-14 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar