Sports Engineering

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 359–365 | Cite as

A nonlinear dynamic finite-element analyses of the basketball-related eye injuries

  • Alireza KarimiEmail author
  • Reza Razaghi
  • Seyed Mohammadali Rahmati
  • Toshihiro Sera
  • Susumu Kudo
Original Article


Eye injuries from blunt forces and penetrating objects can cause morbidity, disability, and blindness. Most of these injuries are preventable not only by understanding the detail of injury, but also by portraying the role of the ball’s characteristics. Basketball can induce severe forms of injuries to the eye. This study was aimed at performing a numerical analysis through the fluid–structure interaction on ocular trauma. Balls with different diameters, elastic moduli, and pressures were shot to the eye. Injury in terms of the stresses and deformations in each component of the eye was computed at ~ 0.72 mm deformation in the apex of the cornea. By increasing the diameter of the ball from 20 to 26 cm the stress in the eye components, excluding the aqueous body, vitreous body, and extraconal fat, increased. Stresses of 2.68 and 3.19 MPa were observed in the cornea under the ball diameters of 20 and 26 cm, respectively. Conversely, the elastic modulus and pressure of the ball in the defined range showed no considerable role on the stress in the eye components. The results revealed the importance of the ball size compared to the elastic modulus and pressure in the stress accumulation as a result of ocular trauma.


Human eye Basketball Injury Impact Dynamic finite element Fluid–structure interaction 



Alireza Karimi was designed the study, performed the experimental measurements, analyze the data, performed the numerical analyses, and write the manuscript. Seyed Mohammadali Rahmati was analyzed the data and performed the numerical analyses. Reza Razaghi was performed the numerical analyses. Toshihiro Sera interpreted the data and reviewed the manuscript. Susumu Kudo interpreted the data, reviewed the manuscript, and gave the final confirmation for submitting the manuscript.



Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© International Sports Engineering Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireza Karimi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Reza Razaghi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Seyed Mohammadali Rahmati
    • 4
  • Toshihiro Sera
    • 1
  • Susumu Kudo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Basir Eye Health Research CenterTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical EngineeringAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran

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