Sports Engineering

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 91–104 | Cite as

A simple mechanical model for simulating cross-country skiing, skating technique

  • John Bruzzo
  • A. L. Schwab
  • Antti Valkeapää
  • Aki Mikkola
  • Olli Ohtonen
  • Vesa Linnamo
Original Article

Abstract

The role of simulation models in sport disciplines has become relevant lately due to the multiple advantages that they may offer sports teams, coaches and practitioners. This paper develops and presents a simple three-dimensional multibody dynamic model of a cross-country skier, modeling a single propulsion phase to obtain the kinetic parameters involved in the movement. A professional Olympic-level skier performed the skating technique without poles in a ski tunnel under controlled conditions and on an incline plane. Then, with a force acquisition system attached to the ski bindings and a motion capture system set on site, the leg resultant forces and the movement of specific points of the skier’s lower body were acquired. The data obtained from the motion capture system were used as the prescribed kinematic input data in the multibody model and the measured force was used later as a parameter of comparison with the results of the simple model. After simulating the technique, the calculated resultant forces seem to be in agreement with those measured in the field.

Keywords

Multibody dynamics Cross-country skiing Skating technique Modeling Experimental verification 

References

  1. 1.
    Lind D, Sanders SP (2004) The physics of skiing: skiing at the triple point. In: David L, Scott PS (eds) vol 42, 2nd edn, New York, ISBN 9781441918345Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allen JB (2007) The culture and sport of skiing: from antiquity to World War II. Univ of Massachusetts Press, ISBN 9781558496002Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bruzzo J (2012) A multibody dynamics model of the cross - country ski-skating technique. Master thesis, Lappeenranta University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pensgaard AM, Roberts GC (2002) Elite athletes’ experiences of the motivational climate: the coach matters. Scand J Med Sci Sport 12(1):54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Krosshaug T, Andersen TE, Olsen OEO, Myklebust G, Bahr R (2005) Research approaches to describe the mechanisms of injuries in sport: limitations and possibilities. Br J Sports Med 39(6):330–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fintelman DM, den Braver O, Schwab AL (2011) A simple 2-dimensional model of speed skating which mimics observed forces and motions. In: Multibody dynamics, ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, Brugge, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bruzzo J, Schwab AL, Mikkola A, Ohtonen O, Linnamo V (2013) A simple multibody dynamic model of cross-country ski-skating. In: 9th International conference on multibody systems, nonlinear dynamics, and control, ASME, Vol 7A, Portland, OregonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu CK, Popović Z (2002) Synthesis of complex dynamic character motion from simple animations. ACM Trans Graph 21(3):408–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rusko H (2003) Cross country skiing. Blackwell Science, Malden, Mass, ISBN 9780632055715Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chaudhary H, Saha SK (2008) Dynamics and balancing of multibody systems. In: Lecture notes in applied and computational mechanics, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 9783540781790Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yeadon MR (1990) The simulation of aerial movement-II. A mathematical inertia model of the human body. J Biomech 23(1):67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vuokatti (2013) Vuokatti city Website. http://www.vuokatti.fi. Accessed 13 Jan 2013
  13. 13.
    Ohtonen O, Lindinger S, Lemmettylä T, Seppälä S, Linnamo V (2013) Validation of portable 2D force binding systems for cross-country skiing. Sports Eng 16(4):281–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kiroiwa D (1977) The kinetic friction of snow and ice. J Glaciol 19(8):141–152Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen L, Qi ZH (2009) A 2-dimensional multi rigid bodies skiing model. Multibody Syst Dyn 21(1):91–98CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Andersen CR (2009) Determination of rigid body registration marker error from edge error. J Biomech 42(7):949–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shabana AA (1998) Dynamics of multibody systems. Cambridge University Press, 2nd edn, ISBN 0521594464Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Flores P, Pereira R, Machado M, Seabra E (2009) Investigation on the baumgarte stabilization method for dynamic analysis of constrained multibody systems. In: Proceedings of Eucomes 08, the 2nd European conference on mechanism scienceGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Colbeck S (1992) The friction of snow skis. In: Proceedings of the 1992 international snow science workshop, Breckenridge, ColoradoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Sports Engineering Association 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Machine DesignLappeenranta University of TechnologyLappeenrantaFinland
  2. 2.Laboratory of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering 3mEDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Biology of Physical Activity, Neuromuscular Research CenterUniversity of JyväskyläVuokatti, SotkamoFinland

Personalised recommendations