Sports Engineering

, 11:23 | Cite as

Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing

  • Mats AinegrenEmail author
  • Peter Carlsson
  • Mats Tinnsten
Original Article


Modern treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteer’s to test their physical performance under laboratory conditions using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. The differences in performance between tests are quite small for elite athletes, and it is therefore of great importance to control the rolling resistance of the roller skis. Otherwise different physiological tests cannot be accurately compared. This study shows that during a warm-up period of 30 min the coefficient of rolling resistance (μ R) decreases to about 60–65% and 70–75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis, respectively. Simultaneous measurements of temperature and μ R shows that stabilized rolling resistance corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski. Tests were also performed on the influence on μ R of normal force, velocity and inclination. Normal forces produced significant influence on μ R, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in μ R.


Incline Normal force Roller skis Velocity Warm-up 



We would like to thank Professor Bengt Saltin (Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre and Mid Sweden University) for his support during development of testing methods. Many thanks also go to the Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre former Project Manager, Bertil Karlsson, for his approval and financial support. Thanks also to Ulla Romild (Mid Sweden University) for the statistical inspection. Finally, we’d also like to thank the European Union’s regional development fund, which provided financial support for the study.


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Copyright information

© International Sports Engineering Association 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mats Ainegren
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Peter Carlsson
    • 3
  • Mats Tinnsten
    • 3
  1. 1.Swedish Winter Sports Research CentreMid Sweden UniversityÖstersundSweden
  2. 2.Department of Health SciencesMid Sweden UniversityÖstersundSweden
  3. 3.Department of Engineering and Sustainable DevelopmentMid Sweden UniversityÖstersundSweden

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