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Breast Cancer

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 517–528 | Cite as

Ellagic acid, sulforaphane, and ursolic acid in the prevention and therapy of breast cancer: current evidence and future perspectives

  • Md. Sadikuj JamanEmail author
  • Md. Abu Sayeed
Review Article

Abstract

Globally, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are currently available treatment options for breast cancer therapy. However, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are often associated with side effects and multidrug resistance, recurrence, and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major problems in the treatment of breast cancer. Recently, dietary phytochemicals have emerged as advantageous agents for the prevention and therapy of cancer due to their safe nature. Ellagic acid (EA), sulforaphane (SF), and ursolic acid (UA), which are found in widely consumed fruits and vegetables, have been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis. This review encompasses the role of EA, SF, and UA in the fight against breast cancer. Both in vitro and in vivo effects of these agents are presented.

Keywords

Breast cancer Ellagic acid Sulforaphane Ursolic acid In vitro In vivo 

Abbreviations

AKT

Protein kinase B

Apaf-1

Apoptotic protease activating factor 1

AIF

Apoptosis inducing factor

Bcl-2

B-cell lymphoma 2

Bax

Bcl-2 associated protein X

Bad

Bcl-2 associated agonist of cell death

CDK4

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4

CDC2

Cell division cycle 2

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CYP19/1A1/1A2

Cytochrome P45019/1A1/1A2

DNMT1/3a

DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1/3a

DMBA

9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene

ER-α

Estrogen receptor-α

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

FoxM1

Forkhead box M1

GSTA1

Glutathione S-transferase A1

HDAC

Histone deacetylases

HER2

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2

hTERT

Human telomerase reverse transcriptase

JNK

Jun N-terminal kinase

LC3

Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

MMP-2

Matrix metalloproteinase-2

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinases

NQO1

NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homolog

RARbeta2

Retinoic acid receptor beta 2

STAT3

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3

TrxR1

Thioredoxin reductase 1

VEGFR-2

Vascular endothelial growth factor-2

Notes

Acknowledgements

Md. Abu Sayeed was recipient of PhD fellowship from Polytechnic University of Marche, Italy. Authors would like to thank Dr Golam Gousul Azam, University of Napoli, Italy for helping to improve the manuscript. Authors would also like to thank Dr Massimo Bracci, Polytechnic University of Marche, Italy for reviewing the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© The Japanese Breast Cancer Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of RajshahiRajshahiBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Molecular SciencesPolytechnic University of MarcheAnconaItaly

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