Epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Venezuela


Purpose of the Review

The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiology of pneumocystosis or Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in Venezuela, by an updated review of the information currently available.

Recent Findings

The PCP epidemiology in Venezuela is not formally known. There is no national surveillance program for mycosis, and systemic mycoses are not mandatory notification diseases. Efforts made to record the disease in our country have not been sufficient; therefore, there is a sub-registry. All the information carried out prevents comparisons with other reports due to the variations in study designs, heterogeneity of the studied patients, and diagnostic methods.


This review summarizes the current knowledge about PCP epidemiology in Venezuela based on available national publications. The contributions of these studies are very valuable, since they reflect the need for systematic PCP study, not only in AIDS patients, but in cancer and COPD patients.

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Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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We want to thank all members of IBEROPNEUMOCYSTIS, especially Olga Matos (Universidade NOVA de Lisboa), Carmen de La Horra, and Vicente Friaza (Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, España), for their support and friendship and to Lieska Rodríguez, Manager of Diagnosis and Epidemiological Surveillance of Rafael Rangel National Institute of Hygiene.

Venezuelan Group for the Study of Pneumocystosis

María Mercedes Panizo, Giuseppe Ferrara and Nataly García (were part of the group of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel until May 2019). Vera Reviakina and Maribel Dolande (currently retired professionals from the Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel). Víctor Alarcón (Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel). Xiomara Moreno and Ana María Cáceres (Instituto Médico La Floresta). Trina Navas (Hospital General del Oeste Dr. José Gregorio Hernández). Enrique Calderon is the coordinator of the Iberoamerican Pneumocystis Network (IBEROPNEUMOCYSTIS). Maria Mercedes Panizo was the leader of the Venezuelan group.

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Correspondence to María Mercedes Panizo.

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María Mercedes Panizo, Giuseppe Ferrara, Nataly García, Xiomara Moreno, Trina Navas, and Enrique Calderón declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.

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Panizo, M.M., Ferrara, G., García, N. et al. Epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Venezuela. Curr Fungal Infect Rep (2020).

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  • Pneumocystis jirovecii
  • Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP)
  • Venezuela
  • Direct immunofluorescence assay (DIF)
  • Nested PCR (nPCR)
  • Epidemiology