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Epidemiology of Emerging Fungal Infections in ICU

  • Arunaloke ChakrabartiEmail author
  • Megha Sharma
Clinical Pathology (S Challa, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Clinical Pathology

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Globally, a change has been noticed in the epidemiology of fungal infections in the intensive care units (ICUs). The current review provides an insight into the current epidemiology of emerging fungal infections with special reference to their prevalence, spectrum of pathogen, outbreaks, and emergence of antifungal resistance reported from different ICUs of the world.

Recent Findings

The ICUs across the world are witnessing multiple changes in the epidemiology of fungal infections including change in prevalence and spectrum of etiological agents, new susceptible risk groups, geographical variations, emergence of novel multi-drug resistant Candida auris, outbreak due to rare fungal species, emergence of antifungal resistance, etc. An understanding of the contemporary local epidemiology of fungal agents in ICU is essential for optimal patient management.

Summary

Invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis continue to haunt as major pathogens in the ICU, and several new risk factors associated with these infections have surfaced up. There is a contrasting picture for the species distribution of Candida among the different countries of the world. C. auris, the yeast behaving like bacteria, has emerged as a potential threat to ICUs across the five continents. Other mycelial agents like Mucorales, Paecilomyces spp., Fusarium spp., and Cladosporium spp., although encountered infrequently, continue to be reported as serious infections in ICU. The ICUs are also vulnerable sites for fungal infection outbreaks due to several fungi including rare ones like Cryptococcus spp., Pichia anomala, and Kodamaea ohmeri.

Keywords

Epidemiology Yeast Mycelium Candida auris Antifungal resistance Outbreaks 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical MicrobiologyPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

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