Advertisement

Pityriasis Versicolor in Children and Adolescents: an Update

  • Karen Adilene Camargo-Sánchez
  • Mirna Toledo-Bahena
  • Carlos Mena-Cedillos
  • Erika Ramirez-Cortes
  • Sonia Toussaint-Caire
  • Adriana Valencia-HerreraEmail author
  • Marcela Salazar-García
  • Alexandro Bonifaz
Fungal Infections of Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue (A Bonifaz and M Pereira, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Fungal Infections of Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a superficial mycosis that it can occur at any age, even in newborns. In this review, we will describe epidemiological data, mycological characteristics of yeast, pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of the disease, different diagnostic resources, and the current recommendations for treatment.

Recent Findings

The typical morphology and topography of PV allow us to make a quick diagnosis, but atypical presentations have been described. Diagnostic tools, such as dermoscopy, can also reveal patterns that allow the evaluation of characteristics of scales and pigment in lesions. The discovery of new species and new mechanisms of interaction with the host has broadened the panorama of aetiological possibilities.

Summary

Although PV is a common disorder, extensive research is necessary to better understand the pathophysiology of the disease, immunological characteristics of the pathogen-host relationship and resources needed to precisely diagnose the disease, treat the disease, and avoid its chronic and recurrent course.

Keywords

Pityriasis versicolor Malassezia spp. children adolescents tinea versicolor superficial mycoses hypopigmented lesions 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Karen Adilene Camargo-Sánchez, Mirna Toledo-Bahena, Carlos Mena-Cedillos, Erika Ramirez-Cortes, Sonia Toussaint-Caire, Adriana Valencia-Herrera, Marcela Salazar-García, and Alexandro Bonifaz declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    •• Heidrich D, Daboit TC, Stopiglia CDO, Magagnin CM, et al. Sixteen years of pityriasis versicolor in metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. 2015;57:277–80.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652015000400001This article presents the study with the highest number of patients. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Negroni R. Historical aspects of dermatomycoses. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:125–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2009.12.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ashbee HR, Evans EGV. Immunology of diseases associated with Malassezia species. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15:21–57.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.15.1.21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Theelen B, Cafarchia C, Gaitanis G, Bassukas ID, et al. Malassezia ecology, pathophysiology, and treatment. Med Mycol. 2018;56:S10–25.  https://doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myx134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hellgren L, Vincent J. The incidence of tinea versicolor in central Sweden. J Med Microbiol. 1983;16:501–2.  https://doi.org/10.1099/00222615-16-4-501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gupta A, Bluhm R, Summerbell R. Pityriasis versicolor. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002;16:19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wyre HW, Johson T. Neonatal pityriasis versicolor. Arch Dermatol. 1981;117:752–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Congly H. Pityriasis versicolor in a 3-month-old boy. Can Med Assoc J. 1984;130:844–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oliveira-Santana J, Costa-Campos-Filho P, Andrade-De Azevedo LF. Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA. Brazil. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88:216–21.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0365-05962013000200005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sharma A, Rabha A, Choraria S, Hazarika D, et al. Clinicomycological profile of pityriasis versicolor in Assam. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2016;59:159–65.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0377-4929.182027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alvarado Z, Pereira C. Fungal diseases in children and adolescents in a referral centre in Bogota. Colombia. Mycoses. 2018;61:543–8.  https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12774.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferie J, Dinkela A, Mbata M, Idindili B, et al. Skin disorders among school children in rural Tanzania and an assessment of therapeutic needs. Trop Doct. 2006;36:219–21.  https://doi.org/10.1258/004947506778604823.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kumar-Jena D, Sengupta S, Chandra-Dwari B, Kumar-Ram M. Pityriasis versicolor in the pediatric age group. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2005;71:259–61.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.16618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Silva-Rocha WP, De Azevedo MF, Chaves GM. Epidemiology and fungal species distribution of superficial mycoses in Northeast Brazil. J Mycol Med. 2017;27:57–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2016.08.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yahya H. Knowledge, perception, and practice of patients about pityriasis versicolor in Kaduna. North Central Nigeria. Int J Dermatol. 2017;56:1169–74.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13654.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aljabre SHM, Alzayir AAA, Abdulghani M, Osman OO. Pigmentary changes of tinea versicolor in dark-skinned patients. Int J Dermatol. 2001;40(4):273–5.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-4362.2001.01201.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rodoplu G, Saracli MA, Gümral R, Yildiran ST. Distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor in Turkey. J Mycol Med. 2014;24:117–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2014.02.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xie Z, Ran Y, Zhang H, Zhang M, et al. An analysis of the Malassezia species distribution in the skin of patients with pityriasis versicolor in Chengdu. China. Sci. World J. 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/182596.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ibekwe PU, Ogunbiyi AO, Besch R, Ruzicka T, et al. The spectrum of Malassezia species isolated from students with pityriasis vesicolor in Nigeria. Mycoses. 2015;58:203–8.  https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moallaei H, Namazi MJ, Bouchara JP, Pourhammed S. Malassezia species in students from universities of Sabzevar. Northeastern Iran. J Mycol Med. 2018;28:70–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2017.12.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elshabrawy WO, Saudy N, Sallam M. Molecular and phenotypic identification and speciation of Malassezia yeasts isolated from Egyptian patients with pityriasis versicolor. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11:DC12–7.  https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/27747.10416.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Diongue K, Kébé O, Faye MD, Samb D, et al. MALDI-TOF MS identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor at the seafarers’ medical service in Dakar. Senegal. J Mycol Med. 2018;28:590–3.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2018.09.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Honnavar P, Ghosh AK, Paul S, Shankarnarayan SA, et al. Identification of Malassezia species by MALDI-TOF MS after expansion of database. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018;92:118–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.05.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cam VT, Van TN, Hau KT, Huu DL, et al. Distribution of Malassezia species from scales of patient with pityriasis versicolor by culture in Vietnam. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019;7:184–6.  https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.091.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Awad AK, Al-Ezzy AIA, Jameel GH. Phenotypic identification and molecular characterization of Malassezia Spp. isolated from pityriasis versicolor patients with special emphasis to risk factors in Diyala Province, Iraq. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019;7.  https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ramadán S, Sortino M, Bulacio L, Marozzi ML, et al. Prevalence of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor in Rosario, Argentina. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2012;29:14–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riam.2011.03.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pedrosa AF, Lisboa C, Gonҫalves-Rodrigues A. Malassezia infections: a medical conundrum. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71:170–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2013.12.022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lorch JM, Palmer JM, Vanderwolf KJ, Schmidt KZ, et al. Malassezia vespertilionis sp. nov.: a new cold-tolerant species of yeast isolated from bats. Persoonia. 2018;41:56–70.  https://doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2018.41.04.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dawson TL. Previews Malassezia : The forbidden kingdom opens. Cell Host Microbe. 2019;25:345–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2019.02.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Karakas M, Turaç-Bíçer A, Ilkit M, Durdu M, et al. Epidemiology of pityriasis versicolor in Adana. Turkey. J Dermatol. 2009;36:377–82.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2009.00663.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Romero-Sandoval K, Alves-Costa A, Teixeira-Sousa MG, Furucho CR, et al. Recurrent and disseminated pityriasis versicolor: a novel clinical form consequent to Malassezia-host interaction? Med Hypotheses. 2017;109:139–44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2017.10.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Romano C, Mancianti F, Nardoni S, Ariti G, et al. Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with extensive forms of pityriasis versicolor in Siena. Italy. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2013;30:231–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riam.2013.02.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brandi N, Starace M, Alessandrini A, Piraccini BM. Tinea Versicolor of the neck as side effect of topical steroids for alopecia areata. J Dermatolog Treat. 2019;22:1–3.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2019.1573308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Crespo-Erchiga V, Gómez-Moyano E, Crespo M. La pitiriasis versicolor y las levaduras del género Malassezia. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2008;99:764–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-7310(08)74956-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cafarchia C, Gasser RB, Figueredo LA, Stefania M, et al. Advances in the identification of Malassezia. Mol Cell Probes. 2011;25(1):1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2010.12.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Honnavar P, Prasad GS, Ghosh A, Dogra S, et al. Malassezia arunalokei sp. nov., a novel yeast species isolated from seborrheic dermatitis patients and healthy individuals from India. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54(7):1826–34.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00683-16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hirai A, Kano R, Makimura K, Duarte ER. Malassezia nana sp. nov., a novel lipid-dependent yeast species isolated from animals. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:623–7.  https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.02776-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sugita T, Takashima M, Kodama M, Tsuboi R, et al. Description of a new yeast species, Malassezia japonica, and its detection in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy subjects. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:4695–9.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.41.10.4695.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sugita T, Takashima M, Shinoda T, Suto H, et al. New yeast species, Malassezia dermatis, isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:1363–7.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.40.4.1363.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Petrokilidou C, Pavlou E, Gaitanis G, Bassukas I, et al. The lipid profile of three Malassezia species assessed by Raman spectroscopy and discriminant analysis. Mol Cell Prob. 2019;46:101416.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2019.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Renati S, Cukras A, Bigby M. Pityriasis versicolor. BMJ. 2015;350:h1394.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h1394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Balestri R, Rech G, Piraccini BM, Antonucci A, et al. Pityriasis versicolor during anti TNF-a monoclonal antibody therapy: therapeutic considerations. Mycoses. 2012;55:444–6.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2012.02170.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    He S, Du W, Yang S, Zhou S, et al. The genetic epidemiology of tinea versicolor in China. Mycoses. 2017;51:55–62.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2007.01437.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tülin Gülec A, Demirbilek M, Seckin D, Can F, et al. Superficial fungal infections in 102 renal transplant recipients: a case-control study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:187–92.  https://doi.org/10.1067/S0190-9622(03)00861-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Angiolella L, Leone C, Rojas F, Mussin J, et al. Biofilm, adherence, and hydrophobicity as virulence factors in Malassezia furfur. Med Mycol. 2018;56:110–6.  https://doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myx014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    • Grice EA, TLJ D. Host – microbe interactions: Malassezia and human skin. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2017;40:81–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2017.10.024An update of the immune response mechanisms in the presence of Malassezia. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sparber F, Leibundgut-landmann S. Host responses to Malassezia spp. in the mammalian skin. Front Immunol. 2017;22.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01614.
  48. 48.
    Lee WJ, Kim JY, Song CH, Jung HD, et al. Disruption of barrier function in dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor. J Dermatol. 2011;38:1049–53.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2011.01320.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tellechea Ó, Cravo M, Brinca A, Robalo-Cordeiro M. Pityriasis versicolor atrophicans. Eur J Dermatol. 2012;22:287–8.  https://doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2012.1659.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Allegue F, Fachal C, Gonzáles-Vilas D, Zulaica A. Atrophying pityriasis versicolor. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2018;109:455–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ad.2017.08.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Marinello E, Piaserico S, Alaibac M. Atrophic pityriasis versicolor occurring in a patient with Sjögren’s syndrome. BMJ Case Rep. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2016-218108.
  52. 52.
    Levy JMS, Magro C. Atrophying pityriasis versicolor as an idiosyncratic T cell-mediated response to Malassezia: a case series. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76:730–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2016.08.062.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    • Crowson AN, Magro CM. Atrophying tinea versicolor: a clinical and histological study of 12 patients. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42(12):928–32.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2003.02110.xSeries with the highest number of atrophic PV cases reported so far. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Galadari I, Komy ME, Mousa A, Hashimoto K, et al. Tinea versicolor: histologic and ultraestructural investigation of pigmentary changes. Int J Dermatol. 1992;31(4):253–6.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4362.1992.tb03565.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Thoma W, Krämer H, Maysert P. Pityriasis versicolor alba. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venerol. 2005;19:147–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.01085.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hattori M, Ogawa H, Takamori K, Gritiyaranson P, et al. De- (hypo) pigmentation mechanisms of the affected area of pityriasis versicolor. J. Dermatol. 1984;2:63–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Aghaei-Gharehbolagh S, Kordbacheh P, Jamal-Hashemi S, Daie Ghazvini R, et al. MGL_3741 gene contributes to pathogenicity of Malassezia globosa in pityriasis versicolor. Mycoses. 2018;61:938–44.  https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12840.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Khaddar RK, Cherif F, Hadid RB, Mokni M, et al. Penile shaft involvement in pityriasis versicolor. Acta Dermatoven APA. 2008;17:86–9.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Martínez E, Porras C, Arenas R. Pitiriasis versicolor: estudio de 194 casos con insistencia en la discromía. Dermatol Rev Mex. 2012;56:388–91.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bonifaz A. Capítulo 8: pitiriasis versicolor. En:. In: Bonifaz A, editor. Micología médica básica. 5ª ed. México: Mc Graw Hill Education; 2015. p. 159–79.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ramírez-Godínez JB, Carreño-Gayosso EA, Soto-Ortiz JA, Tarango-Martínez VM, et al. Pitiriasis versicolor: una actualización. Med Cutan Iber Lat Am. 2018;46:166–75.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    •• Mendez A, Bonifaz A. Formas clínicas excepcionales de pitiriasis versicolor. Dermatol Rev Mex. 2019;63:347–51 A review of the atypical forms of presentation of the PV.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Goldstein BG, Goldstein AO. Tinea versicolor (Pityriasis versicolor). In: Dellavalle RP, Levy ML, Rosen T, editors. UpToDate; 2018. Retrieved aug 1, 2019, from https://www-uptodate-com/contents/tinea-versicolor-pityriasis-versicolor?search=pitiriasis%20versicolor&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~51&usage_type=default&display_rank=1.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    De Graciansky P, Mery F. Atrophie sur pityrisais versicolor aprés corticotherápie local prolongé. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr. 1971;78:295.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hinojosa-Arias E, Sotelo-García L, Bonifaz A. Pitiriasis versicolor variedad atrófica: a propósito de un caso. Derma Cosmética y Quirúrgica. 2014;12:295–6.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zawar V, Chuh A. Pityriasis versicolor imbricata – overlapping parallel scales in a novel variant of pityriasis versicolor. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venerol. 2008;22:1143–5.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2007.02560.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Arenas R. Capítulo 96: Pitiriasis versicolor. En:. In: Arenas R, editor. Dermatología. Atlas, diagnóstico y tratamiento. 5th ed. México: Mc Graw Hill; 2013. p. 472–7.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    • Mathur M, Acharya P, Karki A, Nisha K, et al. Dermoscopic pattern of pityriasis versicolor. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2019;12:303–9. 10.2147@CCID.S195166 A description of dermatoscopic patterns in PV lesions. Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gupta AK, Foley KA. Antifungal treatment for pityriasis versicolor. J Fungi. 2015;1:13–29.  https://doi.org/10.3390/jof1010013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gupta AK, Lyons DC. Pityriasis versicolor: an update on pharmacological treatment options. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014;15:1707–13.  https://doi.org/10.1517/14656566.2014.931373.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    • Gupta AK, Kogan N, Batra R. Pityriasis versicolor: a review of pharmacological treatment. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005;6:165–78.  https://doi.org/10.1517/14656566.6.2.165A review of the topical and systemic treatments available for PV. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hull CA, Johnson SM. A double blind comparative study of sodium sulfacetamide lotion 10% versus selenium sulfide lotion 2.5% in the treatment of pitiriasis (tinea) versicolor. Cutis. 2004;73:425–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Prestia AE. Topical benzoyl peroxide for the treatment of tinea versicolor. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;9:277–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0190-9622(83)80152-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Clayton R, Du Vivier A, Savage M. Double-blind trial of 1% clotrimazole cream and Whitfield ointment in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Arch Dermatol. 1977;113:849–50.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1977.01640060145029.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shi TW, Zhang JA, Tang YB, Yu XH, et al. A randomized controlled trial of combination treatment with ketoconazole 2% cream and adapalene 0.1% gel in pityriasis versicolor. 2015;26:143–6.  https://doi.org/10.3109/09546634.2014.921661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sepaskhah M, Sadat MS, Pakshir K, Bagheri Z. Comparative efficacy of topical application of tacrolimus and clotrimazole in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor: a single blind, randomised clinical trial. Mycoses. 2017;60:338–42.  https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12598.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Amichai B. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with a shampoo containing 1% bifonazole (Agispor shampoo) in children. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000;25:660.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2230.2000.00730-6.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Katsambas A, Rigopoulos D, Antoniou C, Zachari A, et al. Econazole 1 % shampoo versus selenium in the treatment of tinea versicolor: a single-blind randomized clinical study. Int J Dermatol. 1996;35:667–8.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4362.1996.tb03700.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sarkar S, Sengupta D, Basak S, Damji SA, et al. Comparative assessment of the efficacy of topical ketoconazole and topical luliconazole in cases of pityriasis versicolor at a tertiary care hospital in eastern India: a prospective, open, randomized controlled trial. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016;7:335–6.  https://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5178.185471.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Haroon TS, Tareen MI. An open study of tioconazole 1% dermal cream in patients with pityriasis versicolor. J Pak Med Assoc. 1984;34:361–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cam VT, Van TN, Hau KT, Huu DL, et al. Efficacy of azole antifungal in treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019;7:272–4.  https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.092.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Faergemann J, Todd G, Pather S, Vawda ZF, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study of oral pramiconazole in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;61:971–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2008.08.033.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hald M, Arendrup MC, Svejgaard EL, Lindskov R, et al. Evidence-based Danish guidelines for the treatment of Malassezia - related skin diseases. Acta Derm Venereol. 2015;95(2015):12–9.  https://doi.org/10.2340/00015555-1825.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    De Souza Framil MV, Szeszs MW, Melhem MC, Zaitz C. New aspects in the clinical course of pityriasis versicolor. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86:1135–40.  https://doi.org/10.1590/s0365-05962011000600011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Adilene Camargo-Sánchez
    • 1
  • Mirna Toledo-Bahena
    • 1
  • Carlos Mena-Cedillos
    • 1
  • Erika Ramirez-Cortes
    • 2
  • Sonia Toussaint-Caire
    • 3
  • Adriana Valencia-Herrera
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marcela Salazar-García
    • 4
  • Alexandro Bonifaz
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyHospital Infantil de México Federico GómezCiudad de MéxicoMéxico
  2. 2.Hospital Star Médica Infantil PrivadoCiudad de MéxicoMéxico
  3. 3.Division of DermatologyHospital General Dr. Manuel Gea GonzálezCiudad de MéxicoMéxico
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical ResearchHospital Infantil de México Federico GómezCiudad de MéxicoMéxico
  5. 5.Department of Dermatology and MycologyHospital General de México Dr. Eduardo LiceagaMéxicoMéxico

Personalised recommendations