Invasive Mold Infections in Patients with Chronic Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Purpose of the Review
This review summarizes data about epidemiology, treatment, and risk factors for invasive fungal infections (IFI) in patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), multiple myeloma (MM), and indolent non Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL).
Despite advances in the prognosis and treatment of hematological malignancies in recent years, susceptibility to infection remains a significant challenge to patient care. A large amount of data regarding patients with acute leukemias have been published while little information is available on incidence of IFI in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLD).
The overall incidence of IFI in CLL patients is reported from 1.3 to 7.8% and the main risk factors are related to disease status (high-risk in relapsed/refractory disease), number of previous chemotherapy regimens, and Ig levels.
In MM, most of the IFI occurred during refractory or progressive disease. The rate of IFI ranges from 0.5 to 12.3%. Neutropenia is the main risk factor in MM and risk seems to be related to its duration and severity. The overall incidence of IFI in iNHL ranges from 0.5 to 4% and the most important risk factors are disease status (high-risk in relapsed/refractory and advance stage disease) and type of treatment (high-risk for steroid administration, intensive chemotherapy with prolonged neutropenia, use of monoclonal antibodies and purine analogs).
KeywordsMold infection Epidemiology Chronic lymphoproliferative disease Risk factors
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Livio Pagano is a board member and speaker on behalf of Gilead, MSD, Pfizer, Basilea, and Janssen.
Davide Facchinelli, Gessica Marchesini, and Gianpaolo Nadali declare that they have no competing interests.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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