Current Fungal Infection Reports

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 62–67 | Cite as

Evolution of Cryptococcal Antigen Testing: What Is New?

  • Elizabeth Nalintya
  • Reuben Kiggundu
  • David Meya
Clinical Mycology Lab Issues (K Lagrou, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Clinical Mycology Lab Issues


Over the last decade, an upsurge in both the frequency and severity of fungal infections due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the use of immunosuppressive therapy has occurred. Even diagnostic methods like culture and microscopy, which have low sensitivity and longer turnaround times, are not widely available, leading to delays in timely antifungal therapy and detrimental patient outcomes. The evolution of cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing to develop inexpensive and more sensitive methods to detect cryptococcal antigen is significant. These newer tests employ immunoassays as part of point-of-care platforms, which do not require complex laboratory infrastructure, and they have the potential to detect early disease and reduce time to diagnosis of cryptococcal infection. Advocacy for widely available and efficacious life-saving antifungal treatment should be the only remaining challenge.


Cryptococcus Antigen Testing Lateral flow Assay HIV Diagnosis Thermal contrast Fungus Cryptococcal disease Cryptococcal meningitis 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Elizabeth Nalintya, Reuben Kiggundu, and David Meya declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth Nalintya
    • 1
  • Reuben Kiggundu
    • 1
  • David Meya
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health SciencesMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Translational ResearchUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.School of Medicine, College of Health SciencesMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda

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