Current Fungal Infection Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 277–286 | Cite as

Combat-Related Invasive Fungal Wound Infections

  • David R. Tribble
  • Carlos J. Rodriguez
Epidemiological Aspects of Fungal Infection (T Chiller and JA Baddley, Section Editors)


Combat-related invasive fungal (mold) wound infections (IFIs) have emerged as an important and morbid complication following explosive blast injuries among military personnel. Similar to trauma-associated IFI cases among civilian populations, as in agricultural accidents and natural disasters, these infections occur in the setting of penetrating wounds contaminated by environmental debris. Specific risk factors for combat-related IFI include dismounted (patrolling on foot) blast injuries occurring mostly in southern Afghanistan, resulting in above knee amputations requiring resuscitation with large-volume blood transfusions. Diagnosis of IFI is based upon early identification of a recurrently necrotic wound following serial debridement and tissue-based histopathology examination with special stains to detect invasive disease. Fungal culture of affected tissue also provides supportive information. Aggressive surgical debridement of affected tissue is the primary therapy. Empiric antifungal therapy should be considered when there is a strong suspicion for IFI. Both liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole should be considered initially for treatment since many of the cases involve not only Mucorales species but also Aspergillus or Fusarium spp., with narrowing of regimen based upon clinical mycology findings.


Invasive fungal infections Combat-related trauma Invasive mold infections Wound infections Invasive mucormycosis 



We are indebted to the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study (TIDOS) study team of clinical coordinators, microbiology technicians, data managers, clinical site managers, and administrative support personnel for their tireless hours to ensure the success of this project. Special thanks to Leigh Carson for her assistance in manuscript preparation. Support for this work (IDCRP-024) was provided by the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP), a Department of Defense program executed through the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. This project has been funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, under Inter-Agency Agreement Y1-AI-5072, and the Department of the Navy under the Wounded, Ill, and Injured Program.


The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the National Institute of Health or the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Defense, or the Departments of the Army, Navy or Air Force. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organization does not imply endorsement by the US Government.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

DR Tribble and CJ Rodriguez both declare no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All studies by the authors involving animal and/or human subjects were performed after approval by the appropriate institutional review boards. When required, written informed consent was obtained from all participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Preventive Medicine and Biometrics DepartmentUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Walter Reed National Military Medical CenterBethesdaUSA

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