Current Fungal Infection Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 262–270 | Cite as

Epidemiology of Fungal Osteomyelitis

  • Maria N. Gamaletsou
  • Thomas J. Walsh
  • Nikolaos V. Sipsas
Epidemiological Aspects of Fungal Infection (T Chiller and J Baddley, Section Editors)


Fungal osteomyelitis is a severe and debilitating disease, affecting both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Recent comprehensive reviews showed that the burden of fungal osteoarticular infections is steadily increasing due to the growing number of patients at risk. Candida osteomyelitis frequently affects non-immunosuppressed pediatric and adult patients. C. albicans and C. tropicalis are the predominant recovered species. Vertebral osteomyelitis is most common in adults, whereas femoral and humeral bones are typically infected in pediatric patients. Aspergillus osteomyelitis may develop in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients; the vertebral bodies and ribs are most frequently involved. Dimorphic osteoarticular infections occur in endemic areas. Some dimorphic fungi affect immunocompetent patients, while others develop in immune-impaired patients. Osteoarticular mucormycosis and fusariosis also principally develop in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium bone infections may emerge in immunocompetent hosts with mycetoma or in immunocompromised patients with hematogenous dissemination. Cryptococcal osteomyelitis occurs in patients with predominantly impaired cellular immunity.


Fungal osteomyelitis Epidemiology Risk factors Osteoarticular mycoses 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

MN Gamaletsou, TJ Walsh, and NV Sipsas all declare no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria N. Gamaletsou
    • 1
    • 4
  • Thomas J. Walsh
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Nikolaos V. Sipsas
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Pathophysiology Department, Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, and Microbiology-ImmunologyWeill Cornell Medical Center and Cornell University, New York Presbyterian HospitalNew York CityUSA
  3. 3.Hospital for Special SurgeryNew York CityUSA
  4. 4.International Osteoarticular Mycoses Study ConsortiumNew YorkUSA

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