Preventing Death from HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: The Way Forward

Epidemiologic Aspects of Fungal Infections (Tom M. Chiller, Section Editor)


Cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus species, is one of the most common opportunistic infections among persons with HIV/AIDS. The highest burden of disease is in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, where limited access to antiretroviral treatment and appropriate antifungal therapy contributes to high mortality rates. Increasing focus has been placed on earlier detection and prevention of disease. Primary prophylaxis and screening may provide a survival benefit and can be cost-effective in settings where CM prevalence is high. The development of a new point-of-care cryptococcal antigen assay has the potential to transform both disease prevention and diagnosis.


HIV Cryptococcal meningitis Cryptococcus Antiretroviral treatment Cryptococcal antigen assay AIDS HAART Prophylaxis Detection Prevention Point-of-care assay Developing countries Screening 



The findings and conclusions of this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The use of product names in this manuscript does not imply their endorsement by the US Department of Health and Human Services.


No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

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