Fungal Infections in Phagocytic Defects
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- Freeman, A.F. & Holland, S.M. Curr Fungal Infect Rep (2011) 5: 245. doi:10.1007/s12281-011-0063-9
Delineating the infection susceptibility of primary immunodeficiencies allows insight into host immunity. Filamentous mold infections are seen most frequently in chronic granulomatous disease, a neutrophil disorder characterized by impaired superoxide production. Mucocutaneous candidiasis occurs in disorders of impaired interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 signaling, such as seen in autosomal dominant hyper-IgE (Job’s) syndrome and in disorders with autoantibodies to these cytokines. The endemic dimorphic fungi are in part controlled by disorders of the IL-12/interferon (IFN)-γ pathway, such as IFN-γ receptor and STAT1 defects. Understanding the pathways involved in these primary immunodeficiency disorders will also provide insight into these infections in secondary immunodeficiencies and allow guidance for novel therapies.