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Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 57, Issue 2, pp 81–92 | Cite as

Alanine dehydrogenases in mycobacteria

  • Ji-A Jeong
  • Jeong-Il OhEmail author
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Abstract

Since NAD(H)-dependent L-alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.4.1; Ald) was identified as one of the major antigens present in culture filtrates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, many studies on the enzyme have been conducted. Ald catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to alanine with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+ and has a homohexameric quaternary structure. Expression of the ald genes was observed to be strongly upregulated in M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis grown in the presence of alanine. Furthermore, expression of the ald genes in some mycobacteria was observed to increase under respiration-inhibitory conditions such as oxygen-limiting and nutrient-starvation conditions. Upregulation of ald expression by alanine or under respiration-inhibitory conditions is mediated by AldR, a member of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators. Mycobacterial Alds were demonstrated to be the enzymes required for utilization of alanine as a nitrogen source and to help mycobacteria survive under respiration-inhibitory conditions by maintaining cellular NADH/NAD+ homeostasis. Several inhibitors of Ald have been developed, and their application in combination with respiration-inhibitory antitubercular drugs such as Q203 and bedaquiline was recently suggested.

Keywords

alanine dehydrogenase gene regulation Lrp/AsnC family regulator mycobacteria redox homeostasis 

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© The Microbiological Society of Korea and Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Integrated Biological SciencePusan National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea

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