Effects of crude oil on marine microbial communities in short term outdoor microcosms
- 361 Downloads
To assess the effects of crude oil spills on marine microbial communities, 10 L outdoor microcosms were manipulated over an exposure period of 8 days. The responses of microbial organisms exposed to five crude oil concentrations in 10 to 10,000 ppm (v/v) were monitored in the microcosms. The abundance of microalgae and copepods decreased rapidly upon the addition of crude oil at concentrations over 1,000 ppm, whereas the total density of heterotrophic bacteria increased dramatically at the higher concentrations. Bacterial diversity, determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, was increased at higher concentrations. In particular, the intensity of the bands representing Jannaschia sp. and Sulfitobacter brevis increased with the addition of oil. These results indicate that crude oil spills with concentrations over 1,000 ppm seriously affected the structure of the microbial communities.
KeywordsDGGE microbial communities microcosm oil spills pollution effects risk assessment
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Caquet, T., L. Lagadic, and S.R. Sheffield. 2000. Mesocosms in ecotoxicology (1): Outdoor aquatic systems. Rev. Environ. Contam. T. 165, 1–38.Google Scholar
- Cerniglia, C.E. 1981. Aromatic hydrocarbons: metabolism by bacteria, fungi, and algae. Rev. Biochem. Toxicol. 3, 321–361.Google Scholar
- Jung, J.H., U.H. Yim, G.M. Han, and W.J. Shim. 2009. Biochemical changes in rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli, exposed to dispersed crude oil. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. 150, 218–223.Google Scholar
- Lee, R.F., M. Takahashi, J.R. Beers, W.H. Thomas, D.L.R. Seibert, P. Koeller, and D.R. Green. 1977. Controlled ecosystems: their use in the study of the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on plankton, pp. 323–342. In Vernberg, F.J., A. Calabrese, F.P. Thurberg, and W.B. Vernberg (eds.), Physiological responses of marine biota to pollutants. Academic Press, London, UK.Google Scholar
- Miller, M.C., V. Alexander, and R.J. Barsdate. 1978. The effects of oil spills on phytoplankton in an arctic lake and ponds. Arctic 31, 192–218.Google Scholar
- Pulich, Jr., W.M., K. Winters, and C. Van Baalen. 1974. The effects of a no. 2 fuel oil and two crude oils on the growth and photosynthesis of microalgae. Mar. Biol. 28, 87–94.Google Scholar
- Stephensen, E., J. Svarvarsson, J. Sturve, G. Ericson, M. Adolfsson-Erici, and L. Förlin. 2000. Biochemical indicators of pollution exposure in shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), caught in four harbours on the southwest coast of Iceland. Aquat. Toxicol. 48, 431–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wells, P.G. and J.A. Percy. 1985. Effects of oil on arctic invertebrates, pp. 101–156. In F.R. Engelhardt (ed.), Petroleum effects in the arctic environment. Elsevier Applied Science Pub., Essex, England.Google Scholar
- Wolfe, M.F., G.J.B. Schwartz, S. Singaram, E.E. Mielbrecht, R.S. Tjeerdema, and M.L. Sowby. 1998. Influence of dispersants on the bioavailability of naphthalene from the water-accommodated fraction crude oil to the golden brown algae, Isochrysis galbana. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 35, 274–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar